A.   These SUDAS Standard Specifications have been prepared to provide construction utilizing the best general practices and construction methods, utilizing first quality materials and work.  The Contractor shall be responsible for providing or undertaking all work, labor, materials, equipment, tools, transportation, supplies, and activities included in these specifications, unless the responsibility for undertaking or providing same is specifically assigned to an identified party other than the Contractor.


B.   The intent of the contract documents is to provide for the construction and completion in every detail of the work described or as may be amended.  The Contractor shall furnish all labor, materials, equipment, tools, transportation, and supplies required to complete the work according to the plans, specifications, and terms of the contract documents.  The apparent silence or omission of the contract documents as to any detail shall be regarded as meaning only the best general practice is to prevail and only first quality materials and work are to be used.


C.   To prepare the plans, specifications, and contract documents, the Engineer may have performed exploratory work to gain information relative to surface and subsurface conditions. This information, when shown in the contract documents, represents a summary of conditions as of the date the survey was made; it is only an approximate estimation of the site conditions made for the Jurisdiction to identify construction conditions and quantities and classes of work.  The appearance of this information in the contract documents will not constitute a guarantee conditions other than those indicated will not be encountered at the time of construction.  The Contractor's bid shall be prepared based upon its examination of the site and its exploratory work.


D.   Before making whatever additional investigations it feels are advisable, a bidder should contact the Engineer to determine available project area.  If the Jurisdiction has not obtained right-of-entry for such investigation, the bidder shall be responsible to secure right-of-entry to any parcels where the Jurisdiction has not previously obtained right-of-entry before doing any investigation work.  The bidder shall also be responsible for any traffic control necessary for any investigation work.  The bidder shall further be responsible to obtain prior utility locates necessary to conduct such investigations.




The plans and specifications are intended to supplement each other so any work shown on the plans and not mentioned in the specifications, or vice versa, shall be as binding and shall be completed the same as if that work was mentioned or shown on both and to the true intent and meaning of said plans and specifications.




A.   In case of any discrepancy between the various items included in the contract documents, the items shall prevail, or govern, in the following descending order:


1.   Change Orders


2.   Addenda


3.   Proposal and Contract


4.   Special Provisions


5.   Plans, including plan notes


6.   Supplemental Specifications (Jurisdictional document)


7.   General Supplemental Specifications (SUDAS)


8.   SUDAS Standard Specifications


In case of a discrepancy within any contract document, the following shall prevail, or govern, in descending order:  written text, numerals, drawings.


B.   The Contractor shall not take advantage of any apparent error or omission in the plans or specifications or of any discrepancy between the plans or specifications.




A.   Reasonably Close Conformity:  All work performed and all materials furnished shall comply with the lines, grades, cross sections, dimensions, and material requirements, including tolerances, shown in the contract documents.  Where tolerances are not specified, work shall comply with reasonable and customary manufacturing and industry standards.  The Engineer may, in the Engineer’s sole discretion, accept variations beyond such requirements or tolerances where they will not materially affect the value or utility of the work and interests of the Jurisdiction.


B.   Defective Work:  Work not in reasonably close conformity with the contract documents, or requirements thereof that, in the sole discretion of the Engineer, has resulted in inferior or unsatisfactory work.  Defective work shall be removed and replaced or otherwise corrected by and at the expense of the Contractor.


C.   Deficient Work:  Work not in reasonably close conformity with the contract requirements but that, in the sole discretion of the Engineer, may be accepted and allowed to remain in place with a price adjustment and/or extended warranty period.  In the event the Engineer agrees to accept deficient work with a price adjustment/extended warranty, the Engineer will document the basis of acceptance by contract modification making appropriate adjustments in the contract price for such work or materials.


1.05      PLANS


The final plans on file in the Jurisdiction show the location, typical construction details, and dimensions of the work contemplated.  The work shall be performed in conformity therewith, except in case of error or unforeseen contingency.




A.   The Jurisdiction reserves the right to make such alterations in the plans or in the quantities of work as may be considered necessary.  Such alterations shall be in writing by the Engineer and shall not be considered as a waiver of any conditions of the contract documents or to invalidate any of the provisions thereof.


B.   Unless such alterations, increases, or decreases materially change the character of the work to be performed or the cost thereof, the altered work shall be paid for at the same unit prices as other parts of the work.  Quantity changes amounting to 20% or less of the total bid for an item shall not affect the unit price of that item.  If, however, the character of the work or the unit costs thereof are materially changed, due to unforeseen events, an allowance shall be made on such basis as may have been agreed to in advance of the performance of the work.




A.   Oral Orders:  The Engineer shall have authority to give oral orders for minor or incidental changes in the work not involving extra cost and not inconsistent with the proposed purpose of the work.


B.   Written Orders:  The Engineer may in his/her discretion, and subject to formal approval by the Jurisdiction, if required, issue written change orders changing the scope of the work and/or adjusting the amount to be paid to the Contractor for performing such work; however, the Engineer may, in case of emergency of endangering life or property, orally authorize such a change order without formal approval by the Jurisdiction.  Each written change order for extra work shall be explicit in its instruction and shall be duly executed by the Jurisdiction.  One copy of said change order shall be filed with the Contractor.  Each change order shall stipulate the amount and method of payment.




A.   The Contractor is required by Section 1020, 1.04 - Examination of the Contract Documents and Site of Work to make reasonable investigation and examination to determine latent and subsurface conditions at the site of the work prior to preparing its proposal.  The Jurisdiction makes no guarantee of any conditions, latent or subsurface, at the site of the work.  The Jurisdiction shall not be obligated to make any payments to the Contractor by reason of any latent or subsurface conditions.


B.   Failure of the Contractor in determining adverse site conditions prior to filing its proposal, or in any phase of its performance of the work, shall be grounds for refusal by the Jurisdiction to agree to pay for additional work by the contractor necessitated by such site conditions.




A.   Latent or Subsurface Conditions:


1.   If the Contractor encounters latent or subsurface conditions differing materially from those indicated in the contract documents or from those ordinarily encountered in performing work of the character involved, and which the Contractor could not have discovered by a reasonable site investigation and examination of the type customarily undertaken by prudent and competent contractors, and if these unusual or changed conditions are considered by the Contractor as a basis for compensation in addition to the contract price, the Contractor shall promptly after discovery thereof notify the Engineer of its claim in writing.  Before disturbing the site at which the latent or subsurface condition is alleged to exist, the Contractor shall give the Engineer the opportunity to inspect the same.


2.   After inspection by the Engineer, the Jurisdiction may, in its discretion, authorize the Contractor to proceed with or abandon the work.  The Contractor shall resume construction operations pending a decision regarding its claim by the Jurisdiction.  Failure of the Contractor to give prompt written notice and to give the Engineer full opportunity to inspect the condition before disturbing the site shall be deemed a waiver by the Contractor of all claims for extra compensation arising out of the alleged condition.


B.   Compensation:


1.   If the Engineer determines the condition could not reasonably have been discovered, the Contractor is entitled to additional compensation by reason of increased expense caused by the condition, and said condition requires work not contemplated by the contract, a change order will be executed by the parties providing for additional compensation for such amount as the parties may agree upon.


2.   If the Engineer determines the condition to be such as to justify an extension in contract time, such additional time will be granted according to Section 1040, 1.11 - Delays Caused by the Jurisdiction and Section 1080, 1.09 - Extension of Time.




A.   Basis of Claim for Extra Compensation:


1.   In any case where the Contractor believes extra compensation is due for work or material beyond the scope of the work under the contract and not ordered by the Engineer as extra work as defined herein, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing of its intention to make claim for such extra compensation before beginning the work on which the claim is based.  The Contractor shall not proceed with that work until the Contractor and the Jurisdiction have executed a change order with respect to extra compensation.


2.   The Jurisdiction shall be responsible for damages attributable to the performance, nonperformance, or delay, of any other contractor, governmental agency, utility agency, firm, corporation, or individual authorized to do work on the project, only when such damages result from negligence on the part of the Jurisdiction, its Engineer, or any of its officers or employees.


3.   In any case where the Contractor deems that extra compensation is due from the contracting authority as damages resulting from such performances, nonperformances, or delays, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing at the time the delay occurs.


4.   In either case, if such notification is not given, or if after such notification is given, the Engineer is not allowed facilities for keeping strict account of actual costs as defined for force-account construction, the Contractor thereby agrees to waive the claim for extra compensation for such work.  Such notice by the Contractor, and the fact the Engineer has kept account of the cost as aforesaid, shall not be construed as establishing the validity of the claim.


5.   The claim, when filed, shall be in writing and in sufficient detail to permit auditing and an evaluation by the Jurisdiction.  The claim shall be supported by such documentary evidence as the claimant has available and shall be verified by affidavit of the claimant or other person having knowledge of the facts.


B.   Presentation and Consideration of Claim:  If the claimant wishes an opportunity to present its claim in person, the claim shall be accompanied by a written request to do so.  Where the claimant asks an opportunity to present its claim in person, the Jurisdiction, within 30 calendar days of the filing of the claim, shall fix a time and place for a meeting between the claimant and the Jurisdiction or its designated representatives or representative.  The Jurisdiction shall, within a reasonable time after the filing of the claim or the meeting above referred to, whichever is later, rule upon the validity of the claim and notify the claimant, in writing, of its ruling together with the reasons therefore.  In case the claim is found to be just, in whole or in part, it shall be allowed and paid to the extent so found.


C.   Request for Arbitration:  In the event a Contractor's claim as outlined in the above procedure has been disallowed, in whole or in part, the Contractor may, within 30 calendar days from the date the ruling of the Jurisdiction is mailed, make a written request to the Jurisdiction that its claim or claims be submitted to a board of arbitration.  The Jurisdiction shall decide if the matter is subject to arbitration and shall, within 30 calendar days of the receipt of the request for arbitration, grant or deny the request for arbitration.  The Jurisdiction's decision shall be final.


D.   Board of Arbitration:


1.   The board of arbitration shall consist of three persons - one to be appointed by the Jurisdiction, one to be appointed by the Contractor, and the third to be appointed by the two arbitrators thus chosen.


2.   The arbitrators selected shall be persons experienced and familiar with construction or engineering practices in the general type of work involved in the contract, but shall not have been a regular employee or an individual retained by either party at the time the claim arose, or at the time of arbitration.


E.   Arbitration Proceedings:  The board of arbitration shall make its own rules of procedure and shall have authority to examine records kept by the Jurisdiction and the Contractor.  If the desired records are not produced within 10 calendar days after they are requested, the board of arbitration shall proceed without them as best it may.  Notification of arbitration proceedings shall be made by the arbitration board to both the Jurisdiction and the Contractor, and each shall have the opportunity to attend all sessions of the arbitration board.  In determining the findings or award or both, a majority vote of the board shall govern.  Copies of the findings or award or both, signed by the arbitrators, shall be filed with the Jurisdiction and the Contractor.  A unanimous report or majority report may be used.  The board of arbitration shall fix the cost of the proceedings, including a reasonable compensation to the arbitrators, and shall determine how the total cost shall be borne by the parties.


F.   Jurisdiction of Board of Arbitration:  The board of arbitration shall have jurisdiction to pass upon questions involving compensation to the Contractor for work actually performed or materials furnished and upon claims for extra compensation that have not been allowed by the Jurisdiction.  The board's jurisdiction shall not extend to a determination of quality of workmanship or materials furnished, or to an interpretation of the intent of the plans and specifications except as to matters of compensation.  Jurisdiction of the board shall not extend to setting aside or modifying the terms or requirements of the contract.

G.   Determination of Board of Arbitration Final:  The findings or award, or both, of the arbitration board, if acceptable to both parties to the contract, may become a basis for final payment.  If the findings of the arbitration board are unacceptable to either party to the contract, said findings may become the basis for further negotiation between the parties.  In the event a solution agreeable to both parties has not been reached through the filing of a claim, through arbitration, or if arbitration has been denied, either party may resort to whatever other methods for resolving the claim are available to it.  The Contractor shall not initiate any suit against the Jurisdiction for the adjudication of any claim until said claim has been first presented to the Jurisdiction, pursuant to this article, and either submitted to arbitration or a request for arbitration is denied.




If the Jurisdiction or its agents should cause a delay in any part of the work or in the final completion of the job, this fact shall not make void the provisions of the contract as to liquidated damages; but the Contractor will promptly be given such extension of time for the final completion of the job as the Jurisdiction may deem proper to compensate the Contractor for such delay.




No oral agreement or conversation made or had with any officer, agent, or employee of the Jurisdiction, and no informal written communication from any officer, agent, or employee of the Jurisdiction, occurring either before or after execution of the contract, shall affect or modify any of the terms or obligations contained in any of the contract documents.  Such oral contact and such informal writings shall be considered as unofficial information and in no way binding upon the Jurisdiction.




The Contractor shall examine the plans before beginning construction work.  If errors or omissions are discovered in the plans, the Contractor shall call them to the attention of the Engineer before proceeding with the work.  In no case shall the Contractor make the corrections therefore without written permission from the Jurisdiction.  In case revised plans of a supplementary or explanatory nature are necessary or desirable for clarification, or to correct any errors or omissions, they will be furnished by the Jurisdiction from time to time as the work progresses.