Section 4154.  Fence Materials


4154.01     DESCRIPTION.


A.    Materials covered by this section include woven wire farm field fabric, chain link fabric, barbed wire, steel fence posts, wood fence posts, tie and brace wire, gates, and special fittings.


B.    Use material of the size and type designated in the contract documents. Use new material meeting the requirements of the following provisions.


C.    Inspection and acceptance of fence materials will be according to Materials I.M. 454.10.


D.    Ensure similar parts with different shapes or protective coatings are not intermingled within the project limits.




A.    Field fence shall conform to AASHTO M 279 and ASTM A 116 and shall be, unless otherwise specified:


1.     Type Z, Class 3.


2.     Design numbers 1047-6-11 or 939-6-11 for grade 60 wire or design numbers 1047-6-12 1/2 or 939-6-12 1/2 for grade 125 wire.


3.     Use galvanized (as determined by visual inspection) steel rod for splicing fence material.


B.    Deer fence shall be woven wire that meets the following requirements:


1.     12.5 gauge wire according to ASTM A 116 (excluding wire spacing and fence height).


2.     Wires are spaced horizontally and vertically as shown in the contract documents or closer.


4154.03     CHAIN LINK FABRIC.


A.     When chain link fence is specified in the contract documents, chain link fabric shall conform to one of the following:


1.     Zinc coated fabric meeting requirements of ASTM A 392, Class 2 (2.0 ounces per square foot (610 g/m2)) or AASHTO M 181 Type I, Class D.


2.     Aluminum coated fabric meeting the requirements of ASTM A 491 or AASHTO M 181, Type II.


3.     PVC coated fabric meeting requirements of ASTM F 668, Class 2b or AASHTO M 181, Type IV, Class B Fused.


B.    Unless otherwise specified in contract documents, use:


1.     9 gauge coated wire with a breaking strength of 1290 pounds (5.740 kN).


2.     Height of fabric of 72 inches (1.8 m).


3.     Selvage knuckled at both the top and bottom.


4.     Mesh size 2 +/- 1/8 inches (50.8 +/- 3.18 mm).


4154.04     BARBED WIRE.

Unless otherwise specified in contract documents, use barbed wire conforming to AASHTO M 280, Design Number 12-4-5-14R, Type Z Class 3.


4154.05     BRACE WIRE, tension WIRE, AND tie WIRE.


A.    Tension wire shall meet requirements of AASHTO M 181 or one of the following:


1.     ASTM A 817, Type II, Class 3.


2.     ASTM A 121, Type Z, Class 3 zinc coated or aluminum coated.


3.     ASTM A 817, Type I.


4.     ASTM F 1664, PVC (Vinyl) Coated, Class 2b.


B.   Brace and tie wire shall meet the requirements of ASTM F 626 zinc coated or aluminum coated.


1.     Where specified, round metallic-coated tie wires, clips, and hog rings shall be polymer coated to match the color of the chain-link fabric as selected from ASTM F 934


2.     The coating process and metallic-coated core wire materials shall be in accordance with ASTM F 668.


C.    Unless designated otherwise, use wire sizes no smaller than the following diameters:


Table 4154.05-1: Wire Sizes


Wire Size

Tension wire

Brace wire

Tie wires or clips for fastening field fence to steel posts

No. 7 (4.49 mm)

No. 9 (3.76 mm)

No. 12 (2.68 mm)

Use tie wires for chain link fence no smaller than No. 9 (3.76 mm) diameter for post ties or No. 12 (2.68 mm) diameter for rail and brace ties. Equivalent steel clips or aluminum wires or clips may be used if the Engineer approves.


4154.06     STAPLES.


A.     Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, use fence staples conforming to ASTM F 1667 - 13, Table 57: F 1667 ST FN - 06 Z.


B.    Obtain Engineer’s approval for the staples to be used.


4154.07     WOOD POSTS.


A.    Use pine posts of the size and length designated in the contract documents that meet the requirements of Section 4164 with pressure preservative treatment meeting the requirements of Section 4161.


B.    Unless specified otherwise, use round stock posts of the following sizes and lengths:

                Table 4154.07-1: Post Sizes and Lengths


Length, feet (meters)

Line posts, 4 inch (100 mm) top

End, corner, gate, pull, angle, and brace posts, 6 inch (150 mm) top

7 (2.1 m)

8 (2.4 m)


C.    If contemplating driving the line posts, the tip of the post may have a blunt point made before treatment and located near the center line of the post.




A.    Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, use either of the following between wood pull posts:


1.     2 3/8 inch (60.3 mm) SS-40 steel pipe.


2.     5 inch (127 mm) diameter wood posts.


B.    Use diagonal trussing with a double-wrapped 9 gauge, Class 3 steel brace wire.


C.    Ensure ends are flattened to fit squarely against the posts with brace approximately horizontal.


4154.09     STEEL LINE POSTS FOR FIELD FENCE and deer fence.


A.    Use T-section steel posts, of the length specified, as line posts with wood posts, as shown in the contract documents. Do not use them for corner, brace, pull, end, or gate posts.


B.    Only one type of steel post may be used in any installation 1000 feet (300 m) or less in length.


C.    Equip posts with lugs or other approved means to prevent the fence fabric from moving vertically.


D.    Use nominal 1.33 pounds per foot (1.98 kg/m) T-section post meeting requirements of ASTM A 702 and hot dip galvanizing requirements of ASTM A 123.


E.    Completely paint the finished post with a prime coat with no limitation on color or tip identification except as provided for 1000 foot (300 m) installations. Ensure the paint is thoroughly dry before posts are bundled for shipment.




A.    Steel pipe length shall be designated in the contract documents and shall conform to AASHTO M 181 (ASTM) requirements:


1.     Grade 1 (ASTM F 1083); minimum average zinc coating weight of 1.8 ounces per square foot (549 g/m2).


2.     Grade 2 (ASTM F 1043, Group I-C); external zinc coating minimum of 0.9 ounces per square foot (275 g/m2) and internal zinc coating minimum 0.9 ounces per square foot (275 g/m2).


B.    When specified, PVC thermoplastic coating shall be fused and adhered to zinc-coated posts with a minimum coating thickness of 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) conforming to ASTM F 934 & ASTM F 1043 Sections 7 and 8.




A.    Comply with the following:


1.     Attach braces to posts using fittings which will hold both the post and brace rigidly.


2.     Use diagonal truss rods of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter, round steel rods with an appropriate commercial means for tightening.


3.     Furnish a locknut or other device to hold the tightening device in place.


4.     Furnish a suitable sleeve or coupling device, recommended by the manufacturer, to connect sections of top rail and to provide for expansion and contraction.


5.     Use stretcher bars no less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter, or equivalent cross section area, with suitable clamps for attaching fabric to corner, end, or gate posts.


B.    Ensure fittings also conform to AASHTO M 181.


4154.12     GATES.


A.    Field Fence and Chain Link Fence.


1.     Ensure gates provide the width of opening shown in the contract documents. Install a vertical stay in gates more than 6 feet (1.8 m) wide. Where the width of opening specified is:

·         16 feet (5 m) or less, provide a single gate frame.

·         More than 16 feet (5 m), provide two gate frames using a drop bar locking device allowing operation as a double gate.


2.     Ensure each gate is furnished complete with necessary hinges, latch, and other special fittings recommended for the type of gate and gate post being installed.


3.     For chain link fence gates, use the pipe size shown in the contract documents or approved by the Engineer. When size is not shown in the contract documents, use:

·         1 1/2 inch (40 mm) nominal diameter pipe for gates 6 feet (1.8 m) wide or more, and

·         1 1/4 inch (30 mm) nominal diameter pipe for gates less than 6 feet (1.8 m) wide.


4.     Use gate fabric similar to that used for the fence. Attach using stretcher bars.


5.     Use adjustable rods to cross truss gates 6 feet (1.8 m) wide or more.


6.     Ensure materials are galvanized with no less than 0.8 ounce per square foot (244 g/m2) of surface. Gates for field fence may be painted with a prime coat and an enamel finish coat.


B.    Deer Fence.

Furnish the following, galvanized according to Article 4154.10:


1.     Tines molded in one piece of steel with no welds.


2.     Structural steel tubes with wall thickness of 0.1875 inches (4.75 mm) and unit weight of 4.32 pounds per foot (6.43 kg/m).


3.     Support plates, hinges, and top braces.