Section 1101.  Definitions


1101.01     GENERAL.


A.    Wherever in these specifications or other contract documents the following definitions terms, or both, or pronouns in place of them are used, the intent and meaning shall be interpreted as follows:


In order to avoid cumbersome and confusing repetition of expressions in these specifications, it is provided that whenever anything is, or is to be, done, if, as, or, when, or where "contemplated, required, determined, directed, specified, authorized, ordered, given, designated, indicated, considered necessary, deemed necessary, permitted, reserved, suspended, established, approval, approved, disapproved, acceptable, unacceptable, suitable, accepted, satisfactory, unsatisfactory, sufficient, insufficient, rejected, or condemned," it shall be understood as if the expression were followed by the words "by the Engineer" or "to the Engineer."


B.    The titles or headings of the sections and articles herein or referred to on the plans are intended for convenience of reference and shall not be considered as having any bearing on their interpretation.


C.    The contract documents may reference specifications or standards that have been issued by organizations such as AASHTO, ASTM, ANSI, etc. In such instances the reference being made is to the specification or standard that is in effect four weeks prior to letting unless a specific date or year of issue is provided.



Wherever the following abbreviations are used in these specifications or in the contract documents, they are to be construed the same as the respective expressions represented:


AA - Affirmative Action

AAD - Average Absolute Deviation

AAN - American Association of Nurserymen

AAR - Association of American Railroads

AASHTO (or AASHO) - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

ABI - Average Base Index

ABS - Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene

ACI - American Concrete Institute

AGC - Associated General Contractors of America

AIA - American Institute of Architects

AISC - American Institute of Steel Construction

ALS - American Lumber Standards

AMG – Automated Machine Guidance

ANSI - American National Standards Institute

APA - American Plywood Association

API - American Petroleum Institute

APWA - American Public Works Association

ATSSA - American Traffic Safety Services Association

ARA - American Railway Association

AREA - American Railway Engineering Association

ARI - Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute

ASA - American Standards Association

ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers

ASLA - American Society of Landscape Architects

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials

AWPA - American Wood Preservers Association

AWS - American Welding Society

AWWA - American Water Works Association

BSC - Bituminous Seal Coat

CADD - Computer Aided Design and Drafting

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations

CIR - Cold In-place Recycling

CLSM - Controlled Low Strength Material

CMP - Corrugated Metal Pipe

CPM - Critical Path Method

CRSI - Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

DBE - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise

DFT - Dry Film Thickness

DIP - Ductile Iron Pipe

DNR - Department of Natural Resources

DOJ - Department of Justice

DOL - Department of Labor

DOT - Department of Transportation

DTM - Digital Terrain Model

EEI - Edison Electric Institute

EEO - Equal Employment Opportunity

EIA - Electronic Industries Association

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

FAA - Federal Aviation Administration

FHWA - Federal Highway Administration

FR - Federal Register

ESAL - Equivalent Single Axle Load

FSS - Federal Specifications and Standards

GGBFS - Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

GPS - Global Positioning System

GRI - Geosynthetic Research Institute

GSA - General Services Administration

HDPE - High Density Polyethylene Pipe

HMA - Hot Mix Asphalt

IAC - Iowa Administrative Code

ICN – Iowa Communications Network

IMSA - International Municipal Signal Association

ID - Identification

I/D - Incentive/Disincentive

IMSA - International Municipal Signal Association

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IES - Illuminating Engineering Society

ICEA (or IPCEA) - Insulated Cable Engineers Association

IMSA - International Municipal Signal Association

ITE - Institute of Transportation Engineers

ITS - Intelligent Transportation Systems

JMF - Job Mix Formula

LSL - Lower Specification Limit

MASH - Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware

Materials I.M. - Materials Instructional Memorandum

MDPE - Medium Density Polyethylene

MUTCD - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

NCHRP - National Cooperative Highway Research Program

NEC - National Electrical Code

NEMA - National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NESC - National Electrical Safety Code

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

NPDES - National Pollution Discharge Elimination System

NRTL - OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory

NSF - National Sanitation Foundation

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OTDR - Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

PE - Polyethylene

PCC - Portland Cement Concrete

PLS - Pure Live Seed

PPM - Parts Per Million

PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride

PWL - Percent Within Limits

QM-A - Quality Management - Asphalt

RAM - Recycled Asphalt Material

RAP - Recycled Asphalt Pavement

RAS - Recycled Asphalt Shingles

RCAP - Reinforced Concrete Arch Pipe

RCP - Reinforced Concrete Pipe

ROW - Right-of-Way

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers

SDR - Standard Dimension Ratio

SDS – Safety Data Sheet

SSPC - Steel Structures Painting Council

SUDAS - Statewide Urban Design and Specifications

SWPPP – Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan

TIA – Telecommunications Industries Association

TSB - Targeted Small Business

TSR - Tensile Strength Ratio

UL - Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.

US - United States

USC - United States Code

USL - Upper Specification Limit

VCP - Vitrified Clay Pipe

VE - Value Engineering

VMA - Voids in Mineral Aggregate

VOC - Volatile Organic Compound

WMA - Warm Mix Asphalt




Acceptable Work.

Work in reasonably close conformance with the contract requirements.



A revision to the contract documents written and issued after the notice to bidders, and prior to the advertised time for receipt of proposals. Changes reflected in the Addendum shall govern over all other contract documents.



The public announcement, publication, or solicitation, as required by the Contracting Authority, inviting bids for work to be performed or materials to be furnished.



Affiliate companies that have any individual who is an officer, director, or partner in both companies, or if one or more persons or entities own or control 20% or more of the stock of both companies.


Approval for Award.

The acceptance by the Contracting Authority of a bid.


Approved Equal (Equivalent).

A product or material that, upon review of the Engineer, is determined to meet or exceed the requirements called for by the specifications. Upon approval, the item will be allowed in lieu of the specified material or product.


Approximate Start Date.

A calendar day shown on the proposal on which it is anticipated, at the time of letting, that conditions will be such as to permit the Contractor to commence work.


Assignment of Contract.

The written agreement whereby the Contractor sells, assigns, or transfers rights in the contract to any person, firm, or corporation.



The execution of the contract.



The sloping surface of a cut, borrow pit, or ditch of which the downward inclination is toward the traveled way.


Bid Amount.

The aggregate sum obtained by totaling the amounts arrived at by multiplying the number of units of each class of work, as shown in the proposal form, by the unit price specified in the proposal form for that class of work.


Bid Bond.

See Proposal Guaranty.



An individual, firm, corporation, or joint venture submitting a bid for the advertised work.


Bid Item.

See Contract Item (Pay Item).


Board or County Board.

The County Board of Supervisors as constituted under Chapters 39 and 331, Code of Iowa.



Any structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction, such as water, a highway, or a railroad, and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads and having a length measured along the center of roadway of more than 20 feet between undercopings of abutments or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes.


Length. The length of a bridge structure is the overall length measured along the line of survey stationing back-to-back of backwall of abutments, if present, or otherwise end to end of the bridge floor, but in no case is less than the total clear opening of the structure.


Roadway Width. The clear width measured at right angles to the longitudinal center line of the bridge between the bottom of curbs or guard timbers or in the case of multiple height of curbs, between the bottoms of the lower risers.


Calendar Day.

Every day shown on the calendar.


Change Order.

A written order to the Contractor, signed by the Engineer, ordering a change in the performance of work or furnishing of materials, from that originally shown by the contract documents. Change orders duly signed and executed by the Contractor constitute authorized modifications of the contract, and may be performed at contract unit prices, agreed prices, or on a force account basis, as provided elsewhere in these specifications.



A natural or artificial water course.


Chief Engineer.

A Professional Engineer licensed in the State of Iowa and appointed by the Director of the Department of Transportation.


Classes of Work.

The divisions made for the purpose of measuring and paying for labor to be performed or materials to be furnished according to the methods of construction involved, as indicated by the items for which bids have been received for each specific contract.


Commencement of Work.

Work will be considered commenced when the Contractor's operations are started on items of work covered by the contract documents and which require inspection within the right-of-way; or when the Contractor notifies the Engineer, and the Engineer agrees, that the Contractor's equipment and personnel are available to the site, but the operations are prevented by weather or soil conditions.



The State Transportation Commission as constituted under the laws of the State of Iowa (which is the party of the first part in the contracts let in behalf of the State, of which these specifications are a part).



A member of the State Transportation Commission.


Completion Date.

The Date on which all work specified in the contract is completed.


Contract (Also Contract Documents).

The written agreement between the Contracting Authority and Contractor setting forth  obligations of the parties thereunder, including but not limited to, performance of the work, furnishing of labor and materials, and basis of payment. The contract includes the following:

·         Addendum,

·         Contract bond,

·         Contract form,

·         Materials Instructional Memorandums,

·         Notice to Bidders,

·         Notice to Proceed,

·         Plans,

·         Proposal,

·         Special Provisions,

·         Standard Specifications, including General Supplemental Specifications,

·         Developmental Specifications,

·         Supplemental Specifications, and

·         Any change orders and agreements which are required to complete the construction of the work in an acceptable manner, including authorized extensions thereof, all of which constitute one instrument.

·         Digital contract files specified in the contract documents.


Contract Bond.

The bond executed by the Contractor and the Contractor's surety in favor of the party of the first part, guaranteeing the faithful performance of the obligation assumed by the contract and the payment of all debts pertaining to the work.


Contract Item (Pay Item).

A specifically described unit of work for which a price (either unit or lump sum) is provided in the contract.


Contract Period (Also Contract Time).

The number of working days allowed for completion of the contract, including authorized time extensions.


Contract Sum.

The aggregate sum obtained by totaling the amounts arrived at by multiplying the number of units of each class of work, as shown in the contract, by the unit price specified in the contract for that class of work.


Contract Unit Price.

The price bid by the Contractor for one unit of work, as defined by the specifications.


Contracting Authority.

The governmental body, board, commission, or officer having authority to award a contract.



The individual, firm, corporation, or joint venture contracting with the Contracting Authority for performance of prescribed work.


Contractor's Financial Statement.

The specified forms on which a contractor shall furnish required information as to the Contractor's ability to perform and finance the work.


Controlling Item of Work.

The Controlling Item of Work is the unique activity of a contract that will determine the duration of the construction period. The character of this work may change during the construction period. It is the work that could be in progress at any time that would have the greatest influence on the duration of the construction period.



Party of the first part in the contract, let by a County Board of Supervisors, of which these specifications are a part.


County Auditor.

The auditor of the contracting county duly elected under Chapter 39, Code of Iowa.


County Engineer.

A Professional Engineer licensed in the State of Iowa and appointed by the County Board of Supervisors.



A structure not classified as a bridge or storm sewer which provides an opening under a roadway or embankment, except that such term shall not include tiles crossing the road, or intakes thereto, where such tiles are part of a tile line or system designed to aid subsurface drainage.


Deficient Work.

Work not in reasonably close conformance with the contract requirements, or otherwise inferior, but in the opinion of the Engineer, reasonably acceptable for its intended use and allowed to remain in place.


Department of Transportation (the Department).

The Department of Transportation, as defined in Iowa Code 307.


Developmental Specifications.

Additions and revisions to the standard, general supplemental, and supplemental specifications covering the development of new construction items or changes to a process. They only apply to a project when noted in the proposal form.


Divided Highway.

A highway with separate roadways for traffic in opposite directions.


Drainage Ditch.

An artificially constructed open depression, other than a road ditch, which is constructed for the purpose of carrying off surface water.


Electronic Support File.

A file provided to the Contractor for their convenience that is not part of the contract documents. Electronic support files may include, but are not limited to:

·         Machine control data files.

·         Tabulations of plan quantities.

·         Earthwork files.

·         Alignment files.

·         Soil testing data files.

·         CADD files.



Any person working on the project mentioned in the contract of which these specifications are a part, and who is under the direction or control, or receives compensation from, the Contractor or subcontractor.



For the Department, the Engineer is the Chief Engineer. For publicly owned projects, the Engineer is a Professional Engineer licensed in the State of Iowa and authorized representative of the Contracting Authority. For privately contracted projects, with improvements that will become publicly owned, the Engineer is the authorized representative of the public entity ultimately accepting ownership of the improvements. For all other projects, the Engineer is the owner’s authorized representative.


The Engineer may act directly or through duly authorized representatives, acting within the scope of the duties assigned to the Engineer, or the authority given the Engineer.



All machinery and equipment, together with the necessary supplies for upkeep and maintenance, and also tools and apparatus necessary for proper construction and acceptable completion of the work.


Extra Work.

Work not provided for in the contract, as awarded, but deemed essential to the satisfactory completion of the contract within its intended scope and authorized by the Engineer.


Extra work shall not include additional materials, equipment, and labor used due to natural variations in surface and subsurface conditions, except as specifically provided for elsewhere in the contract documents.



The sloping surface of an embankment, ditch, or borrow pit of which the downward inclination is away from the traveled way.


General Supplemental Specifications.

Specifications adopted by the Department's Specification Committee subsequent to the publication of this book. They contain changes to the Standard Specifications and apply to all contracts. Published in April and October each year.


Grade Separation.

A structure, with its approaches, which provides for highway or pedestrian traffic to pass without interruption over or under a railway, another highway, road, or street.


Haul Road.

A corridor of land, when so designated in the contract documents, either private or public, of which the right to use is acquired by the Contracting Authority for the purpose of hauling equipment, materials, or machinery either as vehicles or vehicles with loads, where these vehicles or vehicles with loads exceed the provisions of Iowa Code 321, governing size, weight, and load. (Not to be confused with temporary Primary Road haul road.)



·         The following holidays are observed by the Department:

·         New Year’s Day, January 1,

·         Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Birthday, third Monday in January,

·         Memorial Day, last Monday in May,

·         Independence Day, July 4,

·         Labor Day, first Monday in September,

·         Veterans Day, November 11,

·         Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November,

·         Friday after Thanksgiving Day, and

·         Christmas Day, December 25.


Independent Contractor.

Any person, firm, or corporation who contracts with the Contractor to perform a service for which the basis of payment is in terms of units of service rather than salary or wages.



The authorized representative of the Engineer assigned to make a detailed inspection of any or all portions of the work, or materials.


Institutional Road Project.

A project on the institutional road system of highways at any state institution.


Instruction to Bidders.

See Notice to Bidders.


Intermediate Contract Period.

A period of working days shown on the proposal form specifying the time of completion for a specific item or portion of work on a contract.


Interstate Project.

A Primary project on the Federal System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Includes projects on county and city road bridges over the Interstate.



See Contract Item.


Joint Bid.

A firm proposal submitted by two or more qualified bidders who have been authorized to bid jointly by the Contracting Authority on a specific proposal, in which case bidders will be held individually and collectively responsible for completion of the work involved in any contract resulting from such proposal.


Joint Venture.

The joining of two or more qualified contractors for the purpose of combining equipment, personnel, and finances in order to submit a bid on a single proposal.



Political subdivision acting through its governing body or through the authorized representatives of such governing body when so authorized.


Jurisdictional Engineer.

See Engineer.



The testing laboratory of the Contracting Authority or any other testing laboratory which may be designated in the contact documents.


Late Start Date.

A calendar day shown on the proposal form specifying the latest date on a contract that the Contractor is to commence work.


Legal Axle Load.

A maximum axle load of 20,000 pounds, as defined in Iowa Code 321.


Liquidated Damages.

The dollar amount, determined by the Department and set forth in the contract documents, as an estimate of the damage to the Contracting Authority or the public for delay in completion of the work.


Lump Sum.

The contract amount is complete payment for all work described in the contract documents and necessary to complete the work for that item. Changes in payment will be made for obvious errors or authorized additional work that was not included in the work to be bid by lump sum.


Major Item of Work.

Any contract item (pay item) for which the original contract amount plus authorized additions is more than 10% of the total original contract sum or $50,000, whichever is less.



See Utility Access.



Any substances specified for use in the construction of the project and its appurtenances.


Materials Instructional Memorandum (Materials I.M.).

This is an instruction prepared by the Office of Materials. These may identify approved sources of various qualities or types of materials, sampling, testing, and approval procedures, and conditions for acceptance and use.


Maximum Density and Optimum Moisture Content.

The term maximum density and optimum moisture content as applied to soil, aggregate, and similar materials shall be construed as the maximum density described in AASHTO T 99, T 134, or T 180, as specified, and the corresponding optimum moisture as defined therein. The test methods will normally be AASHTO T 99, Method C; AASHTO T 134, Method B; and AASHTO T 180, Method C, as modified by the Materials I.M.s.



The portion of a divided highway separating the traveled ways for traffic.



Preparatory work and operations for all items under the contract documents, including, but not limited to, those necessary for the movement of personnel, equipment, supplies, and incidentals to the project site; for the establishment of all offices, buildings, and other facilities necessary for work on the projects; and for all other work or operations which must be performed or costs incurred prior to beginning work on the various items on the project site. Mobilization may include bonding, permit, and demobilization costs.


Need Line.

A line or lines within the right-of-way, as shown on the plans or set by the Engineer, to define an area inside which disturbance is expected to complete work on the project and outside which permanent disturbance should be avoided.


Notice to Bidders.

That portion of the contract documents prepared and furnished by the Contracting Authority for the information of bidders submitting proposals, which notice specifies the provisions, requirements, and instructions pertaining to the method, manner, and time of submitting bids.


Notice to Proceed.

Written notice to the Contractor to proceed with the contract work including, when applicable, the date of beginning of contract time.


Optionally Combined Proposal.

The projects from two or more proposals combined by the Contracting Authority to allow the Contractor to bid all the projects as one contract.


Park Road Project.

A project on the park road system of highways and roads at any state park.


Pavement or Paving.

The pavement structure, or the upper surface of a pavement structure, or the materials of which the pavement structure is constructed.


Pavement Structure.

The combination of subbase, base course, and surface course placed on a subgrade to support the traffic load and distribute it to the roadbed.



The final plan, authorized for letting, which includes approved plans, profiles, cross sections, typical cross sections, working drawings, plan notes, standard plans, and supplemental drawings, or exact reproductions thereof, including modifications, altered plans, revisions, and amendments, which show the location, character, dimensions, and details of the work to be done.


Precast Concrete Units.

Conventionally reinforced (not prestressed) concrete structural units, formed, cast, and cured presumably in a central casting yard and later moved and incorporated into the finished structure.


Prestressed Concrete.

Concrete which is subjected to compressive stresses, after hardening, by means of high strength steel tendons, for the purpose of eliminating or minimizing tensile stresses in the concrete due to applied loads. Prestressed concrete may be prefabricated in a permanent plant or at the site, or it may be designed to be cast in place. Prestressed concrete may be either pretensioned, in which case the concrete is cast to engage the steel tendons which have been prestressed between fixed anchorages and released after the concrete has hardened, or post tensioned, in which case the steel tendons are cased in the concrete in suitable enclosures to prevent bond and are stressed by jacking and anchoring against the concrete after it has hardened.


Primary Project.

A project on the Primary Road System of Iowa and extensions thereof in cities and towns. Includes projects on county and city road bridges within an interchange of a Primary road with a county road or city road.


Profile Grade.

The trace of a vertical plane intersecting the top surface of the proposed wearing surface, usually along the longitudinal center line of the roadbed. Profile grade means either elevation or gradient of such trace, according to the context.



The specific section of the highway together with all appurtenances and construction to be performed under a contract. A contract may involve the work covered by one or more projects.


Project Area.

The right-of-way between the project limits shown in the contract documents, and additional area which is necessary for the Contractor to place traffic control devices required by the contract documents or necessary to protect the work.



The offer of a bidder, on the prescribed form, to perform the work and to furnish the labor and materials at the prices quoted.


Proposal Form.

The form showing the location and description of the proposed work, the approximate quantities of work to be performed or materials to be furnished, the form and amount of the required proposal guaranty, and the contract period. The proposal form will also contain a reference to any special provisions or requirements which are supplemental to the standard specifications.


Proposal Guaranty.

The security furnished by the bidder with the proposal for a project(s), as guaranty the bidder will execute the contract for the work if the proposal is accepted.


Reasonably Acceptable.

Reasonably acceptable means acceptance with price adjustment of material or finished work that is incorporated and is not within reasonably close conformity with the contract documents, but at the discretion of the Engineer, it is determined that acceptable work has been produced. This is material or work for which a determination has been made to be accepted and remain in place.


Reasonably Close Conformity.

Reasonably close conformity means compliance with reasonable and customary manufacturing and construction tolerances where working tolerances are not specified. Where working tolerances are specified, reasonably close conformity means compliance with such working tolerances. Without detracting from the complete and absolute discretion of the Engineer to insist upon such working tolerances as establishing reasonably close conformity, the Engineer may accept variations beyond such tolerances as reasonably close conformity where they will not materially affect the value or utility of the work and the interests of the State.


Resident Bidder.

A person or entity authorized to transact business in this state and having a place of business for transacting business within the state at which it is conducting and has conducted business for at least three years prior to the date of the first advertisement for the public improvement.


Responsive Bid.

A bid submitted by a Contractor which is determined not to be an irregular proposal as defined by Article 1102.10 and fulfills the good faith effort recruitment requirements in Article 1102.17.


The land area of which the right to possession is secured or reserved by the Contracting Authority for road purposes.



A general term denoting a public way for vehicular travel, including the entire area within the right-of-way.



The area of the roadway between the tops of foreslopes.



The area within the right-of-way and outside the shoulder lines of a roadbed.



That portion of the right-of-way designed or ordinarily used for vehicular traffic.


Secondary Project (Secondary Road Construction Project).

A project on the Secondary Road System of Iowa and extensions thereof in cities and towns.



That portion of the road bed contiguous with the traveled way for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use, and for lateral support of base and surface courses.



That portion of the roadway primarily constructed for the use of pedestrians.


Skew or Skew Angle.

The complement of the acute angle between two center lines which cross. The angular deviation of the axis of a culvert or bridge from a true right angular crossing of a road.


The inclination of a line or surface expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.


Special Provisions.

Additions and revisions to the Standard, General Supplemental, Developmental, and Supplemental Specifications covering conditions particular to an individual project. They only apply to a project when noted in the proposal form.


Specialty Items.

Pay items designated in the contract documents as specialty items; usually minor items requiring equipment, skills, or crafts not ordinarily associated with the major types of work covered by the contract.



The general term comprising all the written documents, provisions, and requirements to which may be added or adopted Supplemental Specifications, Developmental Specifications, or Special Provisions, all of which are necessary for the proper performance of the contract documents.


Specified Starting Date.

A calendar day shown on the proposal on which date commencement of work is expected.

Speed Limit.

Refers to the legally established speed limit before construction and not the advisory speed during construction.


Standard Road Plans.

A manual of detailed drawings showing standardized design features, construction methods, and approved materials for repetitive use on Interstate, Primary, and Secondary road construction.


Standard Specifications.

The requirements contained herein applying to all contracts, and pertaining to the method and manner of performing the work, or to the quantity and quality of the materials to be furnished under the contract.



The State of Iowa acting through its authorized representative.



One hundred linear feet.



See Road.



All objects constructed of materials other than earth, required by the contract documents to be built, or to be removed, but not including pavement, surfacings, base courses, and subbases. Includes bridges, culverts, intakes, drop inlets, retaining walls, cribbing, utility accesses, end walls, buildings, sewers, service pipes, subdrains, foundation drains, and other features which require engineering analysis.



The layer or layers of specified or selected material of designed thickness upon which a base course or pavement is constructed.



Any individual, firm, or corporation to whom the Contractor, with the written consent of the Contracting Authority, sublets any part of the contract.



The top surface of a roadbed upon which the pavement structure and shoulders are constructed.



All of that part of the structure below the bearings of simple and continuous spans, and tops of footings of rigid frames, together with the backwalls, wingwalls, and wing protection railings.


SUDAS Standard Specifications.

Refers to specifications developed by the Iowa Statewide Urban Design and Specifications Program.



The Contractor's authorized representative in responsible charge of the work.



The entire structure except the substructure.


Supplemental Agreement.

Written agreement between the Contractor and Contracting Authority modifying the original contract.


Supplemental Specifications.

Specifications adopted subsequent to the publication of this book. They involve new construction items or changes to Standard Specifications. They only apply to a project when noted in the proposal form.



The corporation, partnership, or individual, other than the Contractor, executing a bond furnished by the Contractor.


Target or Target Value.

When a target or target value is specified, a continuous and determined effort is expected to reach and maintain that value, as a goal.


Temporary Primary Road Haul Road.

Any Secondary public road or city street so designated by the Department in accordance with Iowa Code 313.


Temporary Structure.

Any structure required to maintain traffic during construction of the work and which will be dismantled when the work is completed. The temporary structure shall include the earth approaches thereto.


Traffic Control Device.

As defined in the MUTCD.


Traffic Control Zone.

The distance between the first advance warning sign and the point beyond the work area where traffic is no longer affected. This does not include work more than 12 feet (3.6 m) from the outside edge of the traveled way.


Traveled Way.

The portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders.


Unacceptable Work (Also Defective Work).

Work not in reasonably close conformance with the contract requirements and ordered to be removed and replaced.


Unauthorized Work.

Work neither contemplated by the contract documents nor authorized by the Engineer, and work done contrary to the instructions of the Engineer.


Unit Price.

See Contract Unit Price.



Includes all privately, publicly, municipally, or co-operatively owned structures and systems for supplying water, sewer, electric lights, street lights and traffic lights, gas power, telegraph, telephone, communications, transit, pipelines, and the like.


Utility Access.

An inline structure to allow personnel access and maintenance of underground utilities.


Utility Agency.

Means and includes: 1) all franchised utilities having utility system facilities with State or local jurisdiction right-of-way, including but not limited to gas electric, telephone, cable television, and communications; 2) communications systems allow by the State or local jurisdiction; and 3) all governmental agencies owning or operating governmental utility systems, including but not limited to water, sewer, traffic control, and communications.


Waters of the United States.

All waters, impoundments of waters, or tributaries of waters, including but not limited to lakes, rivers, streams, intermittent streams, mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, or natural ponds.



Work shall mean the furnishing of all labor, materials, equipment, and other incidentals necessary or convenient to the successful completion of the contract and the carrying out of all the duties and obligations imposed by that contract.


Work Area.

That portion of the project area in which construction activity is ongoing.


Working Day.

Any calendar day, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, or a recognized legal holiday, on which weather or other conditions (not under control of the Contractor) will permit construction operations to proceed for not less than 3/4 of a normal work day in the performance of a controlling item of work.


Working Drawings.

Stress sheets, shop drawings, erection plans, false work plans, framework plans, cofferdam plans, bending diagrams for reinforcing steel, or any other supplementary plans or similar data which the Contractor is required to submit to the Engineer for approval.