10.60 DISPOSAL OF CONSTRUCTION WASTES
10.61 DEMOLITION WASTE, CLEARING & GRUBBING
"Construction and demolition waste" means waste building materials including wood, metals, and rubble which result from construction or demolition of structures. Such wastes shall also include trees. Refer to Construction Manual Chapter 6 for discussion about disposal of clearing and grubbing wastes.
Iowa DNR requires a “Notice of Demolition” to be filed with them 14 calendar days prior to starting work. The Asbestos Coordinator in the Office of Location and Environment will prepare and submit these notifications as requested by project engineers. Project engineers must make a request for the Office of Location and Environment to file a notification. Refer to Construction Manual Chapter 11.01 for information regarding removal of bridges.
To allow time for internal communication and processing, the specifications require the contractor to identify a start date and expected duration at least 25 calendar days prior to starting demolition. Project engineers then have 7 calendar days to provide this information to the Office of Location and Environment. Once notification is made to Ames, requests will typically take 1 to 2 working days to process and mail.
n Requests for demolition notifications shall include:
Contractor Information - Name, mailing address, telephone number, contact person, and contractor’s start date
Project Information - Project number, listing of each parcel to be demolished, and estimated completion date (allow for rain days and delays)
Parcel Information (for each parcel) - Parcel number, mailing address, list and description of buildings, approximate age of buildings, number of floors (2 story house), approximate building size (X ft2), present/prior use
Waste Hauler Information – Name, mailing address, telephone number, and contact person.
Waste Disposal Site Information – Name, waste facility address, and telephone number.
Most information should be available from the contractor, demolition plans, and contract documents in the project file.
n Project engineers will receive an electronic file copy of notices for their projects. It is recommended to check with the Office of Location and Environment if this copy is not received within a week of submitting the original request.
n Regulatory notifications are parcel specific, not project general. If an additional parcel is added by Extra Work Order, another 14 calendar day regulatory notification is required.
n A Notice for Demolition is required before removing buildings and structures. It is acceptable to allow a contractor to start removal of miscellaneous items on a demolition contract at any time. (For example: remove fencing, sidewalks, driveways, septic tanks, clearing and grubbing, junk, etc.) A contractor cannot demolish a building without Iowa DOT having made notice to Iowa DNR.
Effective as of January 2016, the Iowa DNR requires a fee of $100.00 for each original demolition notification. Revisions of start and/or completion dates do not require a fee. The Office of Location and Environment will process these fees for the notifications prepared by their office.
U.S. EPA has advised the Iowa DOT that the following are not considered to be regulated buildings and therefore do not require advance notice of demolition: outhouses, dog houses, garden sheds, pump houses, storm/root cellars, and similar appurtenances. Examples of buildings which are regulated and which do require advance notice of demolition include houses (including basements and foundations), garages, barns, machine sheds, corn cribs, grain bins, hog houses, & chicken coops.
n Changes to the original notification. Note: All times and days noted below include no allowance for transmittals and communication lags between the field and Ames. The regulatory time frame required by notification starts 14 days from the time the Office of Location and Environment processes the paperwork. Project engineers need to decide what time allowance is appropriate for their situation.
1. Delaying a notice’s start date requires amending the original notice to Iowa DNR. Delaying a start date can be made anytime up to the original start date. After that time a new notice must be processed which means the 14 calendar day delay starts over. Project engineers are responsible to provide information about delays to the Office of Location and Environment for processing.
2. Extending the notice’s completion date by more than 1 or 2 calendar days requires amending the original notice to Iowa DNR. Project engineers are responsible to provide information about extensions to the Office of Location and Environment for processing.
3. Starting earlier than a notice’s start date shall not be allowed except for the following circumstance. Moving up a start date can be accomplished if at least 14 calendar days are available from the time a notification is made to the demolition start date. The Office of Location and Environment should be made aware of any schedule changes.
The Office of Location and Environment maintains a database on DOTNET that tracks the status of demolition notifications prepared by their office.
Demolition by Burning
Burning of buildings or structures shall not be allowed, as per Iowa DNR regulations. The Office of Right-of-Way does have a procedure that allows fire departments to perform training fires. This includes a standardized written agreement, and current policy is to have the training fire performed prior to the parcel being turned over to the Office of Contracts for a demolition letting.
Note: Burning of clearing and grubbing residue is still allowable on highway projects. Refer to Construction Manual Chapter 6 for more details.
Septic Tanks and Privies
It is not uncommon to have an item on a demolition contract that requires closing of a septic tank system. Since septic tank systems come in various styles, configurations, and construction materials, it is difficult to address their closure in other than general terms. The recommended method for closing a septic tank system:
n All contents and sludge shall be removed and disposed of in compliance with current state and federal regulations. Chapter 68 of Part 567, Iowa Administrative Code requires the work to be performed by a Commercial Septic Tank Cleaner licensed by the State of Iowa.
n Tanks shall be removed and disposed of by the contractor. Note: It is not required that a contractor remove the leach field tile.
n All lateral lines (in flow and out flow) shall be plugged at the tank.
Closing of outhouses is not specifically addressed by specifications due to the infrequent nature of encountering this situation. If it is necessary to close an outhouse, costs associated with such closure would be minimal. If an outhouse is present on a demolition contract:
n Remove the building
n Have the contractor spread a 50 pound bag of “sweet” lime on the fecal sludge.
n Backfill the hole with any suitable backfill material or sand.
Asbestos is the name for a group of natural minerals that separate into strong, fine fibers. The fibers are heat‑resistant and extremely durable. The typical size of asbestos fibers is from 0.1 to 10 micrometers. This makes them usually invisible to the human eye. Because of their fine size, they can remain suspended in air for hours when disturbed. This increases the possibility of human exposure via inhalation.
From a regulatory and health standpoint, friable asbestos is of primary concern. Friable asbestos material is defined as any material containing more than one percent asbestos by area which, when dry, can be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure.
Asbestos can be found in many common building materials and has been identified on bridges including expansion joint materials, bearing pads and packings, tar sealants, utility conduits, and pipe coatings.
Asbestos is regulated by a number of federal agencies including OSHA, EPA, DOT, the Consumer Product Safety Commission and the Mine Safety and Health Administration. Regulation by state agencies includes IWD Division of Labor and the DNR.
U.S. EPA regulates the removal of asbestos‑containing material from buildings and structures which are being demolished or renovated. EPA regulations for removal, and subsequent disposal, are set forth in 40 CFR 61. Generally speaking, certain procedures must be followed, including:
n Buildings and structures that are scheduled for renovation or demolition shall be inspected for the presence of asbestos. This includes bridge projects having the potential to encounter asbestos materials. Note: Moving of a building is considered renovation. Therefore, such instances must be investigated.
n Iowa DNR and Iowa Division of Labor shall be notified at least 14 calendar days prior to asbestos abatement activities. For the Iowa DOT, the asbestos services agreement requires the abatement contractor to provide this notification with copy to the project engineer.
n All asbestos must be removed prior to any activities that would disturb the materials or prevent future access to them for removal.
n When asbestos is removed, it must be kept wet (friable asbestos), contained in a leak‑proof wrapping or bag, and properly labeled for disposal.
n U.S. DOT regulates the transportation of asbestos and identifies it as a hazardous material (but not a hazardous waste). Before accepting asbestos for transportation, a transporter must ensure that it is properly contained in leak‑proof containers, appropriately labeled, and has a waste shipment record properly filled out.
n Because asbestos is essentially immobile in soil, it need not be placed in a hazardous waste landfill. A permitted sanitary landfill is sufficient.
The Office of Location and Environment maintains a database available for viewing on DOTNET on the status of asbestos inspections and removals.
Removal activities will be administered by the Office of Location and Environment. Contact the Office of Location and Environment with any questions on the process.
General field contract oversight and coordination for this work is the responsibility of the Office of Location and Environment. Abatement contractors are required to:
n Complete and file abatement notification to Iowa DNR and Iowa Division of Labor. A copy of this notification shall be provided to the project engineer. A contractor shall not start work before the date specified on the notification form and that date must be at least 14 calendar days after the notice was postmarked, i.e. file notice....wait 14 calendar days...begin abatement work.
n Notify the project engineer of the contractor’s work schedule including start date and anticipated duration of site activities. Note: Start date must be the date stated on the notification. If it is not, an amended notification shall be submitted by the contractor to Iowa DNR and Iowa Division of Labor.
n Provide a final abatement report to the project engineer. This report shall contain copies of waste shipment records, all air monitoring test results, any daily work logs, and a signed copy of the Certification of Completion statement. (Blank form provided in Appendix 10-13.
Field monitoring and oversight may be required for asbestos removal activities. Information on site activities such as number of individuals working, and how much waste is generated should be documented in the inspector’s daily diary.
Payments will be initiated by the asbestos coordinator in the Office of Location and Environment. When the abatement work is completed:
n The final abatement report needs to be filed in the project engineer’s office, by county and parcel number, in a general asbestos file and retained for 3 years.
n The contractor’s Certification of Completion statement needs to be initialed by the project engineer (in the space provided) and forwarded to the Office of Location and Environment c/o Asbestos Coordinator. This will be the coordinator’s trigger to accept the project and issue final payment.
10.63 PAINT WASTE
Refer to Construction Manual 10.54 for disposal of paint wastes.
10.64 LIGHT BULBS, THERMOSTATS, & BALLASTS
EPA identifies bulbs and possibly ballasts, transformers, and/or capacitors from the following as regulated waste:
Fluorescent lights Mercury Vapor lights
High Pressure Sodium lights Metal Halide lights
Also included in the regulations are heating and cooling thermostats which have mercury thermometers and/or an internal mercury filled switch. Therefore, these items must be removed and disposed of properly before demolishing a building or structure. Removals will be accomplished in one of two ways:
Situation 1 - Parcel has been abated for asbestos and the abatement contractor has removed mercury and PCB-containing materials. In this situation, the inspector needs to verify regulated materials have been removed prior to the actual demolition.
Situation 2 - Parcel was initially found to contain no asbestos.
In this situation there will not be an asbestos abatement contract. The project engineer will be responsible to check for mercury and PCB-containing materials and have them removed prior to demolition.
EPA regulations state that "...
mercury-containing lamps ..." and thermostats are to be considered a
“universal” waste due to the presence of mercury. The bulbs from lights noted
above and thermostats with mercury thermometers and/or mercury switches CANNOT
be disposed of in a landfill and should be processed appropriately as universal
wastes. Contact the Office of Location and Environment for disposal assistance.
Some lights contain ballasts or capacitors which may contain PCBs. PCBs have been banned from use in the U.S since 1979. Ballasts are required to be PCB free and to be labeled with a statement that indicates the ballast Contains no PCBs. (Refer to Appendix 10-10, Photographs #7 & 9.) PCB wastes are regulated by EPA and considered a hazardous waste.
Bulbs from the 4 types of lights noted above shall be:
n removed from the lighting unit.
n packed in a way to prevent breakage during handling, transportation, and storage.
n quantified as to the number of bulbs from each parcel.
n transported and temporarily stored in a "safe" designated temporary storage area.
NOTE: Bulbs can be packaged together provided there is some positive protection from breakage and the bulbs are identifiable by quantity of bulbs from each parcel. Cardboard boxes (grocery store variety) can be used for smaller bulbs. Obviously, longer fluorescent bulbs will be a problem. One option is to have the Reclamation facilities provide containers for fluorescent bulbs. The contractor could also be asked to provide appropriate storage containers.
If a bulb breaks during removal or in handling, the broken material shall be cleaned up, placed in a separate secure container, marked as "Broken bulb(s)," and transported with other bulbs to the temporary storage area.
Thermostats which control heating and/or cooling systems must be checked for mercury thermometers and an internal mercury filled glass bulb/ampule switch. A thermostat which contains either (or both) shall be removed and added to the mercury-containing materials. The entire thermostat shall be removed and packaged as an intact unit – do not attempt to remove the mercury capsule.
Each ballast shall be visually checked to see:
1. If the unit's product label or case has verbiage indicating "Contains no PCB," OR
2. If the unit was so constructed as to preclude the need for oil cooling, e.g., lacking an outer metal jacket. Appendix 10-10, Photograph #3.
However if there is no such statement, or if the label is unreadable, and the unit is enclosed in a sealed metal jacket, it shall be considered hazardous and:
n Removed from the lighting fixture by disconnecting or cutting attached brackets and/or wiring,
n Placed in a sealable metal container,
n Quantified as to the number of units from each parcel,
n Transported and temporarily stored at a designated temporary storage area.
Ballasts which are PCB Free are not regulated by EPA and may be taken to an Iowa landfill or scrap metal facility if the facility accepts ballasts. If no viable disposal option exists for NON-PCB ballasts, include them with the PCB items for reclamation processing.
1. Ballasts, transformers, and capacitors can be containerized together, but must be containerized separate from the bulbs.
2. Ballasts, transformers, and capacitors should be containerized in quantities that facilitate reasonable handling and in a manner such that puncturing or crushing is prevented.
3. Storage containers for ballasts, transformers, and capacitors shall be
a durable, sealable, metal container like an 5 gal pail or a 55 gal barrel. This is to prevent uncontrolled leakage of PCB oil should a unit get punctured.
If a ballast is found to be leaking oil during removal:
n Don rubber gloves for dermal protection. (Rubber gloves are available from Central Warehouse.)
n Place that unit in several plastic bags.
n Containerize separately.
n Mark container as "Leaking PCBs."
If a unit is found to be leaking in the storage container:
n leave it alone,
n place the lid on the container,
n mark container as having "Leaking PCBs," and
n start filling another container.
In either case, contact the Office of Location and Environment.
Paperwork and Labeling
A. Bulbs - Storage Documentation
A “Used Lamp” Label shall be attached to each container when that container is delivered to the designated temporary storage area. The label shall contain the following information:
n "ACCUMULATION START DATE" is the date when bulbs are first placed in a container in the temporary storage area.
n “Location” is the temporary storage area.
B. Ballast - Storage Documentation
When storing containerized ballasts that contain PCB’s in the temporary storage area, two (2) labels are required:
1. Hazardous Waste Label, AND
2. PCB Notification Label
Both labels shall be attached to each container for ballasts when that container is delivered to the temporary storage area.
(Refer to Appendix 10-10, Photographs #11 & 12)
NOTE: Contact the Office of Location and Environment for assistance in acquiring and completing labels.
Storage and Shipping Requirements
A. Temporary Storage
The Office of Location and Environment is responsible for proper disposal/reclamation of ballasts and florescent bulbs. It is recommended to make prior arrangements for storage at a local Iowa DOT maintenance garage. If a job will generate more than 220 pounds of removed bulbs and ballasts, call the Office of Location and Environment. A "project specific" temporary storage area may be designated and arrangements will be made for disposal.
Project engineers who opt to store at locations other than at an Iowa DOT maintenance garage are responsible to ensure bulbs and/or ballasts are delivered to the approved reclamation facility within 90 days from the date a container is placed in temporary storage. (That is, from the date placed on the Hazardous Waste Label as noted above.)
NOTE: The reclamation facility will not accept a whole light fixture, only bulbs, ballasts, transformers, and capacitors.
B. Labeling of Storage Containers
Storage at RCE or project field office:
Project engineers are responsible to fill out and attach labels noted above when bulbs and/or ballasts are in the temporary storage area.
Storage at a maintenance garage or maintenance facility:
Project engineers are responsible to fill out and attach labels noted above when bulbs and/or ballasts are in the temporary storage area.
Storage at a maintenance garage or maintenance facility:
Project engineers are responsible to ensure proper labeling of bulbs and/or ballasts generated from a project. Containers which have bulbs and/or ballasts stored in them and are in a temporary storage area must be properly labeled. Project engineers need to ensure wastes from construction projects are properly labeled.
C. Shipping Arrangements
If bulbs and/or ballasts are stored anywhere other than at a local Iowa DOT Maintenance facility, the project engineer shall make arrangements for proper disposal. Shipping arrangements can be made by contacting the Office of Location and Environment.
Shipments of bulbs and thermostats no longer require manifesting. Shipments of all other electrical components from a temporary storage area to the reclamation facility do require manifesting. In cases where removed materials are NOT temporarily stored at a local Iowa DOT Maintenance facility, project engineers (or their designated representative) are responsible to sign a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest.
Removals and Project Costs
A. For removals, project engineers may:
1. Have project inspectors remove bulbs, ballasts, transformers, and/or capacitors. Iowa DOT inspectors may remove, containerize, inventory, and transport these materials to the temporary storage area. There is no special hazardous waste training required for Iowa DOT employees.
2. Issue contract modifications for a demolition contractor to remove, containerize, label, and transport bulbs and ballasts to the designated temporary storage area. The project engineer must ensure removal has occurred prior to demolition and that all waste has been inventoried, containerized, and delivered to the designated temporary storage area. Bulbs and ballasts not removed or removed and broken or lying on the floor are NOT acceptable.
3. External voucher removals to "someone competent." It is recommended to hire a local electrician, if this option is used. The project engineer must ensure contractor removes, handles and disposes of wastes properly.
B. Shipping and Reclamation Costs
Costs associated with reclamation will be a project cost when the project engineer opts to store bulbs and/or ballasts at the RCE or project field office.
Hazardous Waste Manifest
(The following is for shipments which originate from the RCE or project field offices.)
A Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest is required for all shipments of hazardous waste. As of September 2006, the US EPA requires the use of a revised manifest with a unique nation-wide, tracking number and only EPA approved registrants are allowed to print manifests. Manifests will be provided by the waste hauler/disposal facility. Project engineers (or designated representatives) are required to sign, date, and enter the project number on a manifest at the time of shipment.
After the manifest is signed by the project engineer (or authorized representative) and the transporter:
n The “Generator Copy” page is removed and retained in the project files.
n Remove and retain (in the project files) all copies of field inventories attached to, or accompanying, the storage containers.
n The truck driver takes the original manifest and all remaining copies.
After shipments have been delivered to their final destination, the “Original – Return to Generator” copy, signed by the disposal facility, will be returned to the Office of Location and Environment, who in turn will forward a copy to the appropriate RCE or maintenance facility where the shipment originated. A copy shall be placed in the project files to document closure of the completed shipment.
NOTE: The “Generator Copy” collected at the time of shipment may be thrown away at this time. The “Original – Return to Generator” copy shall be retained with the project files for 3 years.