Section 4153. Miscellaneous Iron and Steel.
Forgings, from which pins, rollers, trunnions, or other forged parts 7 inches (175 mm) or more in diameter are made, shall meet requirements of ASTM A 688/A 688M, Class C. Forgings of this class may also be used for production of pins and rollers smaller than 7 inches (175 mm) in diameter. For forgings intended for welding, the carbon content (product analysis) shall be limited to 0.35% maximum.
COLD FINISHED STEEL.
Pins and rollers less than 7 inches (175 mm) in diameter may be made from cold finished steel meeting requirements of ASTM A 108, Grades 1016 to 1030 inclusive, with the additional requirement of Rockwell Hardness not less than B-80. Steels which show Rockwell Hardness less than B-80 may be accepted provided they show an ultimate tensile strength not less than 66,000 psi (455 MPa) and a yield point not less than 33,000 psi (230 MPa).
Steel castings shall meet requirements of ASTM A 27/A 27M, Grade 65-35 (450-240), supplemented by the following provisions:
A. Quality of Work.
Steel castings shall be true to pattern in form and dimension, free from pouring faults, sponginess, cracks, blow holes, and other defects in positions affecting their strength and value for the service intended.
B. Blow Holes.
The finished castings shall show no blow holes exceeding 1/2 square inch (320 mm2) in area or 1 inch (25 mm) in length, and the total length of cavity cut by a straight line laid in any direction shall not exceed 1 inch in 1 foot (25 mm in 300 mm).
Large castings shall be suspended and hammered all over, if required by the Engineer. No cracks, flaws, or other defects shall appear after such treatment.
D. Unfilleted Corners.
Steel castings shall be free from unfilleted angles or corners.
Iron castings shall be either gray iron castings meeting requirements of ASTM A 48 or ductile (nodular) iron castings meeting requirements of ASTM A 536, as specified in the contract documents. Unless otherwise specified, gray iron castings, bridge rockers, and shoes shall meet requirements of Class 35B, and ductile iron castings shall meet requirements of Grade 65-45-12.
Castings shall be boldly filleted at angles, and arises shall be sharp and perfect. Castings shall be true to pattern in form and dimensions, free from pouring faults, sponginess, cracks, blow holes, or other defects in positions affecting their strength for service intended. With approval of the Engineer, minor defects may be welded by an approved process if the depth is not greater than 5% and the length is not greater than 25% of the thickness at the point of occurrence and if the defects do not impair the strength. Castings which have been welded without permission of the Engineer may be rejected. Frames and grates for drainage openings shall be straight and shall fit properly together so traffic will not cause them to rattle. Rough spots which prevent suitable fitting may be removed by grinding.
WELDED STEEL PIPE.
Unless otherwise specified, all welded steel pipe shall be standard weight, black pipe meeting requirements of ASTM A 53, Grade B.
BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS AND FASTENERS.
Bolts, nuts, and washers for bolted connections of steel structures shall conform to the type specified in the contract documents and shall meet the following requirements for the type designated:
A. Non-High Strength Bolts and Nuts.
Non-high strength bolts and nuts shall meet requirements of ASTM A 307, Class A, with full diameter body. Threads shall meet the requirements of ANSI B1.1, Unified Coarse Thread Series, Class 1A and Class 1B fit. Bolt heads and nuts shall be hexagonal. Where galvanized fasteners are specified, zinc shall be applied by hot dipped galvanizing to meet the requirements of ASTM A 153 or may be mechanically galvanized to meet the requirements of ASTM B 695, Class 50 Type 1.
High Strength Fasteners.
High strength bolts, nuts, and washers shall meet the requirements of the appropriate ASTM Specifications as follows: bolts - A 325, nuts - A 563 Grade DH3, and washers - F 436. For galvanized high strength fasteners, the fasteners shall meet the requirements of ASTM B 695, Class 50 Type I. For weathering steel, bolts shall be ASTM A 325 Type III, nuts shall be ASTM A 563 Grade DH3, and washers shall be ASTM F 436 Type III.
All high strength bolts, nuts and washers shall be furnished in accordance with this specification, which includes:
The appropriate ASTM Specifications,
2) In certain instances, modifies the requirements of ASTM Specifications, and
3) In certain instances, adds requirements in excess of the ASTM Specification.
NOTE: ASTM A 490 bolts are specifically excluded from this specification.
The applicable ASTM test method specifications are as follows:
a. ASTM F 606 - Standard Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers and Rivets.
b. ASTM A 370 - Standard Methods and Definitions of Mechanical Testing of Steel Products.
Article 7.2 of ASTM A 325 shall be changed to read as follows:
"Threads shall be the Unified Coarse Thread Series as specified in ANSI/ASME B1.1 and shall have Class 2A tolerances."
2. Specifications for Nuts.
a. Intentionally left blank.
b. ASTM A 563 - Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts.
c. Proof load tests (ASTM F 606 Paragraph 4.2) are required. Galvanizing, if required, shall be done prior to proof load testing. Minimum frequency of tests shall be in accordance with ASTM A 563 Paragraph 9.3.
3. Specifications for Bolts.
a. ASTM A 325 - High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints.
b. Proof load tests (ASTM F 606, Method 1), are required. Galvanizing, if required, shall be done prior to proof load testing. The minimum frequency of tests shall be in accordance with ASTM A 325 Paragraph 9.5.1.
c. In determining bolt length, the grip shall be calculated as for a riveted joint, and the values shown under bolt size in the following table shall be added thereto to compensate for thickness of the nut, one washer, and the bolt point. If other than the preferred thickness of washer is used, the necessary length shall be adjusted to the next longer 1/4 inch (6 mm) increment.
Bolt Size-in. 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, 7/8, 1, 1 1/8, 1 1/4
(Bolt Size-mm) (12.7) (15.9) (19.0) (22.2) (25.4) (28.6) (31.8)
Add to Grip-in. 15/16, 1 1/16, 1 3/16, 1 5/16, 1 7/16, 1 9/16, 1 11/16
(Add to Grip-mm) (24) (27) (30) (33) (36) (40) (43)
4. Specifications for Washers.
ASTM F 436 - Specifications for Hardened Steel Washers.
5. The supplier's Rotational-Capacity Certification requirements are as follows:
a. The fastener assembly (bolt, nut, and washer) shall be subjected to rotational-capacity tests by the supplier, prior to shipment, to ensure compatibility of the fastener assembly, in accordance with Materials I.M. 453.06B.
b. Each combination of production lots (bolt, nut, and washer) shall have a unique Rotational-Capacity Lot number. This number shall be included on the certified test report and the shipping containers for bolts, nuts, and washers.
6. The manufacturing of high strength fasteners shall comply with the following requirements:
1) Hardness requirements for bolt diameters 1/2 inch to 1 inch (12.7 mm to 25.4 mm), inclusive, shall be as follows:
2) Black bolts must be "oily" to the touch when installed. Dry or rusted bolts shall be cleaned and re-lubricated prior to installation.
1) Nuts shall be grades 2H, DH, or DH3 and must be "oily" to the touch when installed. Dry or rusted nuts shall be cleaned and re-lubricated prior to installation.
2) Galvanized nuts shall be clean, dry, and lubricated as per ASTM A 563 Supplementary Requirements S1 and S2.
All bolts, nuts, and washers shall be marked with a symbol identifying the manufacturer as required by ASTM specifications. The supplier shall include, with the certification documents the symbol and address of each manufacturer of all bolts, nuts, and washers supplied for the project.
Unless otherwise specified, installation of all high strength bolts shall be in accordance with the Article 2408.39, E.
4153.07 HARDWARE FOR TIMBER STRUCTURES.
A. Bolts and Nuts.
All bolts used with timber structures shall have a full diameter body. Bolts and nuts shall meet requirements of ASTM A 307, Grade A. Bolt heads and nuts may be either square, hexagonal, or heavy hexagonal style and shall meet requirements of ASTM A 307 and ASTM A 563.
Washers may be cast iron, malleable iron, or mild steel. Flange bolts and flange nuts may be used in place of separate washers. Cast iron washers, flange bolts, and flange nuts shall have a diameter not less than 3.5 times the diameter of the bolt with which they are used. Type A plain washers, before galvanizing, shall conform to the dimensions in ANSI B18.22.1.
All bolts, nuts, and washers shall be zinc coated to meet requirements of ASTM A 153, Class D.
Nails shall be round or oval galvanized wire nails meeting requirements of FSS FF-N-105(2) of the size designated. Double pointed nails shall be of a type approved by the Engineer. All nails holding floor plank, backing plank, or sway bracing shall be ring shanked before galvanizing. The galvanized coating shall meet requirements of ASTM A 153, Class D.
E. Lag Bolts.
Lag bolts shall meet requirements of ANSI B18.2.1 and shall be galvanized in compliance with ASTM A 153, Class D.
F. Floor Clips.
Floor clips shall be as shown in the contract documents. When not shown, they shall be galvanized metal, not thinner than 10 gauge (3.4 mm), shaped to fit the flanges.