Section 2102. Roadway and Borrow Excavation.
This work shall include removal of all materials as indicated in the contract documents and from borrow pits, exclusive of that designated as channel excavation. It shall also include removal of material necessary to provide suitable approaches from intersecting highways and private entrances. It shall include all shaping and sloping necessary for construction of the roadbed, slopes, gutters, and inlet and outlet ditches in accordance with these specifications and in conformance with the alignment, grade, and cross sections shown in the contract documents or established by the Engineer.
If impractical to remove utility poles before excavation or embankment construction, the Contractor will be required to work around the poles.
Before excavation is begun, grass, weeds, other herbaceous vegetation, and rubbish shall be removed as provided in Article 2101.02.
CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION.
All roadway and borrow excavation will be classified as Class 10, Class 12, or Class 13 hereinafter defined and as indicated in the contract documents.
A. Class 10 Excavation.
Class 10 excavation shall include all normal earth materials such as loam, silt, gumbo, peat, clay, soft shale, sand, and gravel. It shall include fragmentary rock or boulders handled in the manner normal to this class of excavation. It shall include any combination of the above described materials and any other material not classified as Class 12 or Class 13.
B. Class 12 Excavation.
Class 12 excavation shall include the actual measured volume of granite, trap, quartzite, chert, limestone, sandstone, hard shale, or slate in natural ledges or displaced masses. It shall also include the estimated or measured volume of rock fragments or boulders which occur on the surface or in subsurface deposits mixed with earth, sand, or gravel when their size, number, or location prevents them from being handled in a manner normal to Class 10 excavation.
C. Class 13 Excavation.
Class 13 excavation shall include all materials included under the definitions of Classes 10 and 12 and any other material encountered, regardless of its nature. The various materials encountered in Class 13 excavation shall be used or removed as provided for the various kinds of material. No separate measurements of such various classes of materials will be made. This classification covers work commonly referred to as "Unclassified Excavation".
The contract documents will specify the limits for Class 13 excavation. Excavation within these limits shall not be classified as Class 10 or Class 12 excavation.
REMOVAL AND PLACEMENT OF BOULDERS.
Boulders encountered in excavation shall be removed or buried. Surface collections of boulders, within the limits of the work, shall be removed where necessary for satisfactory completion of the work. After completion of excavation operations and as part of the finishing process, the Contractor shall collect all loose boulders, rocks, and pieces of broken Portland cement concrete, which have a vertical projection 4 inches (100 mm) or more above the surface of the ground or a minimum diameter of 6 inches (150 mm), that appear during the finishing operation. Boulders, except those handled in a way normal to Class 10 excavation, will be classified as Class 12 excavation. Unless otherwise specified, the Contractor shall place boulders in any of the following ways:
A. Boulders too large to be loaded and hauled with available equipment may be buried in locations where they will not be exposed by erosion. Care shall be taken that boulders so buried are covered with at least 1 foot (0.3 m) of earth. Excavation made for the purpose of burying boulders will not be measured or paid for.
B. Boulders or rock fragments may be used in construction of embankments if such use does not interfere with specified compaction of the embankment and provided they are covered with at least 1 foot (0.3 m) of earth. If boulders delivered to the embankment in combination with finer material interfere with compaction, they shall be removed and placed as provided in this Article.
C. If the quantity of boulders or rock fragments available at any one time is more than 100 cubic yards (100 m3), the material may be placed in the embankment not less than 2 feet (0.6 m) below the finished grade line in accordance with Article 2107.10, except that they shall be covered with at least 2 feet (0.6 m) of earth on slopes.
Boulders not placed as provided above may, with approval of the Engineer, be used for filling gullies, be racked in neat compact piles at locations designated by the Engineer within the right-of-way and accessible from the traveled way, or be buried within the right-of-way at locations designated by the Engineer.
REMOVAL OF UNSUITABLE OR UNSTABLE SOIL AND PLACEMENT OF SELECTED OR SPECIAL BACKFILL MATERIAL.
Removal of unsuitable or unstable soil or placement of selected or special backfill material, or both, may be required in the contract documents or by the Engineer.
If the finished grade line leaves a subgrade of unsuitable or unstable soil, the Engineer may require the Contractor to remove that soil as below grade excavation and backfill to the finished grade line. Material encountered above the elevation of finished subgrade which cannot be properly consolidated in the embankment may be designated as unstable soil by the Engineer. If the surface on which the plans indicate that selected or special backfill shall be placed is such that it will be seriously distorted by hauling equipment, the Engineer may designate this material as unstable.
Removal of unsuitable or unstable soil and placement of selected or special backfill material shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
Removal of Unsuitable or Unstable Soil.
These soils shall be removed to the elevation shown in the contract documents or as directed by the Engineer. They shall be removed or placed as directed in the contract documents or by the Engineer and, in the case of unsuitable soils, in accordance with Article 2107.14.
The Contractor shall conduct operations in such a way that the Engineer is given opportunity to take cross sectional measurements required before the backfill is placed.
B. Backfill Materials.
Selected backfill material shall be obtained from locations shown in the contract documents or as directed by the Engineer.
Special backfill material shall be furnished by the Contractor and shall meet requirements of Section 4132.
Salvaged HMA and unclassified reclaimed asphalt pavement inspected in accordance with Article 2303.02, C, may be used for special backfill material. Salvaged material used for special backfill shall be processed so that 100% of the material is processed to a nominal 2 inch (50 mm) top size. When so processed, other gradation and quality requirements of Section 4132 will not apply. Salvaged materials used as special backfill shall be placed in uniform lifts of not more than 6 inches (150 mm) in thickness.
Salvaged composite HMA and Portland cement concrete pavement and unclassified reclaimed composite pavement from approved sources may be used for special backfill. The composite pavement shall be processed so that a uniform blend of material is crushed to meet the requirements of Gradation Number 30 of Section 4109. When so processed, other quality requirements of Section 4132 will not apply. Salvaged composite material used as special backfill shall be placed in uniform lifts of not more than 6 inches (150 mm) in thickness.
Placement of Backfill Material.
Special or selected backfill material shall be placed in areas shown in the contract documents or as directed by the Engineer. Placement and compaction shall be as provided in Section 2107 with the following modifications: Where compaction with moisture and density control or with moisture control is required, the moisture content of special and selected backfill materials shall be within the limits specified.
The moisture content of selected backfill material at the time of spreading and compacting shall not be drier than 2.5 percentage points below the optimum moisture shown in the contract documents. If not shown, the optimum moisture shall be determined by the Engineer. The moisture content of special backfill material at the time of spreading and rolling shall be not drier than 2 percentage points below, and shall not exceed, the maximum amount that will permit obtaining required compaction without rutting. The moisture content shall be uniform and may be adjusted by processing in an approved pugmill or by addition of water and road mixing in place, prior to spreading and compacting.
When selected or special backfill material is placed in areas where unstable soils have been excavated and the thickness of backfill placed is 2 feet (0.6 m) or more, the condition of underlying soil may limit the amount of compaction to be done in the bottom 1 foot (0.3 m) of subgrade treatment. In exceptionally wet or unstable areas, the Contractor may be permitted to end dump the first foot (0.3 m) of treatment material and doze it into position with only partial compaction, as directed by the Engineer. Material above the bottom 1 foot (0.3 m) in such areas shall be compacted as provided above.
When selected or special backfill is placed in areas of exceptionally wet or unstable soils and the thickness is less than 2 feet (0.6 m), the Engineer may require the tamping type roller to be used for compaction of the material placed in the first foot (0.3 m) of thickness.
When excavation to the finished grade line results in a roadbed surface consisting of loose or solid rock, the Contractor shall excavate 1 foot (0.3 m) below the finished grade of the roadbed and backfill to the required grade with suitable earth. Subject to approval of the Engineer, the earth backfill may be obtained from any point within the right-of-way where suitable backfill material is available. The Contractor shall conduct operations in such a way that the Engineer is given the opportunity to take cross sectional measurements required before backfill is placed.
When presplitting of rock cuts is required, the limits of the area and the procedure will be designated.
The contract documents may require that part or all of the Class 12 Excavation be crushed. When crushing is required, the contract documents will specify the size and/or gradation the rock shall be crushed to, and specify where the crushed material is to be stockpiled or used in the contract.
Unless otherwise provided in the contract documents, when the quantity of material required for embankments is not available within the limits of the roadway cross sections or specific borrow areas as indicated, the Contractor shall make up the deficiency from borrow areas provided by the Engineer or furnish equivalent material from alternate borrow areas.
The following definitions apply to this specification:
Mandatory borrow areas will be designated in the contract documents.
An area provided by the Contracting Authority from which the Contractor may obtain borrow material. If so obtained, the Contractor is expected to operate in the area in accordance with the contract documents. Borrow areas are optional borrow areas unless specifically designated as mandatory borrow areas.
An area outside the highway right-of-way provided or to be provided by the Contractor from which the Contractor may obtain borrow material. Use shall be in accordance with the contract documents. The Contractor is responsible for obtaining all rights associated with this area and for use of this material.
A general term for borrow areas provided by the Engineer, including mandatory and optional borrow areas.
Borrow areas provided by the Contractor shall be regular in cross section to permit accurate measurement. Care shall be taken to blend to natural land forms and avoid unnecessary damage to the land. The Contractor shall not turn natural drainage of surface water on to adjoining owners and shall use strict diligence in draining the surface water in its natural course or channel. Excavation shall be completed in a way as to be consistent with the existing natural drainage conditions.
Where a mandatory borrow area is designated in the contract documents, it is mandatory that borrow material be obtained from the borrow location designated unless permission is obtained from the Engineer to obtain borrow from another location.
Unless the contract documents designate borrow areas as mandatory borrow areas, borrow areas will be considered optional borrow areas. The Contractor has the option of either using the optional borrow areas or proposing to furnish equivalent material from alternate borrow areas.
The Contractor may be required to compensate the Contracting Authority for material removed from optional borrow areas. When required, the rate of compensation per cubic yard (cubic meter) to be charged will be shown in the contract documents. Compensation will not be required for topsoil that is removed and replaced. Compensation will be based on quantities shown in the contract documents, as corrected. However, when only a portion of the designated quantity is taken from the area, the quantity will be calculated from cross section measurements. When the contract documents do not identify an amount per cubic yard (cubic meter) for compensation, the material in the optional borrow area is available to the Contractor at no cost.
A. Contractor's Plan.
When specified in the contract documents, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a plan for use of all alternate borrow areas, including designated borrow areas which the Contractor intends to use in a manner different from that shown in the contract documents. Also, when required, the proposed alternate borrow areas shall be sampled by core drilling by the Contractor in the presence of a representative from the Office of Design, Soil Section. Samples shall be provided to this representative for testing by the Department. A minimum of 10 working days will be necessary for this testing.
A plan for use of alternate borrow areas may be submitted only once. The submission must include all such areas necessary or contemplated for completion of the planned work.
Generally, optional borrow areas should be used as intended or not at all. Use in a manner different from that shown in the contract documents is subject to approval of the Engineer.
Approval of materials and their use will be based on AASHTO M 145-91 and includes the following:
Select Treatment Materials.
All soils required for select subgrade treatments shall be as approved by the Engineer. The Contractor may elect to substitute special backfill (Section 4132) at one-half the required rate at no extra cost to the Contracting Authority. If special backfill is substituted, the Contractor will provide for suitable drainage of this material at no extra cost to the Contracting Authority.
a. Cohesive Soils.
Cohesive soils must meet all of the following requirements:
1) 45% or less silt size fraction.
2) 110 pcf (1750 kg/m3) or greater density (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).
3) Plasticity index greater than 10.
4) A-6 or A-7-6 soils of glacial origin.
b. Granular Soils.
Granular soils must meet all of the following requirements:
1) 110 pcf (1750 kg/m3) or greater density (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).
2) 15% or less silt and clay.
3) Plasticity index, 3 or less.
4) A-1, A-2, or A-3 (0).
Select treatment sources shall be of sufficient uniformity and size to assure that complete individual treatment areas will be constructed with similar material. Substitution of treatment types (cohesive, granular, or special backfill) will be allowed only with the permission of the Engineer.
c. Special Backfill.
Special backfill shall meet requirements of Section 4132.
All soils provided for the construction of embankments shall meet the following requirements, and they are suitable when moisture control or moisture and density control is designated.
a. 95 pcf (1500 kg/m3) or greater density (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).
b. AASHTO M 145-91 index of less than 30.
c. Soils not meeting these requirements are considered unsuitable soils.
d. Soils to be placed below water shall be clean granular material.
Unsuitable soils are to be placed in the work only as specified by Standard Road Plan RL-1B or are to be removed as directed by the Engineer. Use in the work will be in accordance with the following definitions:
|Slope Dressing Only:|| 1. Peat or Muck.
2. Soils with a plasticity index of 35 or greater.
3. A-7-5 or A-5 having a density less than 85 pcf (1350 kg/m3) (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).
|Type C placement placed 3 feet (1 m) below top of subgrade in fills:|| 1. All soils other than A-7-5 or below subgrade A-5 having a density of 95 pcf (1500
kg/m3) or less (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).
2. All soils other than A-7-5 or A-5 containing 3.0% or more carbon.
|Type B placement placed 5 feet (1.5 m) below top of subgrade in fills:|| 1. A-7-6 (30 or greater).
2. Residual clays (overlaying bedrock) regardless of classification.
|Type A placement placed in layers 5 feet (1.5 m) below top of subgrade in fills:||1. Shale.|
|(Alternate layers shall be suitable Class 10 or Type C placement soils.)||2. A-7-5 or A-5 soils having a density greater than 86 pcf (1351 kg/m3) but less than 95 pcf (1500 kg/m3) (AASHTO T 99 Proctor Density).|
4. Other Materials.
All materials not covered above shall be placed as required by Standard Specifications.
The Contractor will be responsible for obtaining necessary environmental, archaeological, and historic preservation clearances, and the Contractor shall be responsible for complying with all restrictions attached to these clearances. The Engineer will provide reasonable assistance in identification of permit procedures and expediting consideration of these requests. The Contractor shall be responsible for all other licenses and permits and for complying with all other Federal, State, and local laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations involved in the proposed use of the alternate borrow areas. The Engineer may decline approval of an alternate borrow area when:
1. Necessary clearances cannot be obtained prior to the time scheduled for commencement of the work.
2. Restrictions attached to these clearances will delay or interfere with the scheduled completion of work or may result in less than necessary quantities of the required borrow materials.
3. The Contractor's plan for the use of borrow areas, including the Contractor's verification of quantity and quality of required material is not sufficient to assure the availability of required material.
4. The Contractor's proposed plans fail to meet requirements of the law or this specification.
The Contracting Authority will not be responsible for damages due to a delay in approval of an alternate borrow area or when approval of an alternate borrow area is declined.
Optional borrow areas shown on the Contractor's plan shall be left in at least as good a condition as that required by the contract documents for designated borrow areas, whether all or only a part of the site or the material is used for borrow. All optional borrow areas and, unless the landowner consents and agrees otherwise, all alternate borrow areas shall be used and rehabilitated so that the sites can continue to be used for the purpose they were used prior to removal of borrow and may still be used for those higher and more profitable or better potential uses to which the site might have been put to prior to removal of any borrow material; the Engineer will require restoration in accordance with 314.12, Code of Iowa, to meet this requirement. The overall Contractor's plan shall neither detract from nor interfere with the air, light, and view of motorists nor of adjacent landowners.
D. Obligations and Payment.
Use of an alternate borrow area shall not increase future obligations or total cost to the Contracting Authority. The Contractor shall be responsible for completing all excavation from the roadway and the mandatory borrow areas.
E. Consideration of Proposal.
The Engineer will be allowed a reasonable time to evaluate each alternate borrow area. If the clearance is not obtained within 30 calendar days, the proposed use of that borrow area may be rejected. During this evaluation period, the Contractor will not be charged for working days the Contractor does not work because the Contractor cannot use the borrow area, but the maximum allowance for each contract shall not exceed 30 working days. This allowance will not apply to work for which an intermediate completion time is specified and will be given only when the delay will not interfere with others authorized to work on the project. It shall not increase the Engineer's responsibility to provide coordination.
F. Starting Work.
Except for exploratory purposes, work shall not be started and material shall not be taken from an alternate borrow area until its use is approved in writing by the Engineer and until the Contractor has filed with the Engineer a written release executed by the property owner and the Contractor, relieving the Contracting Authority of any and all obligations to the property owner and saving the Contracting Authority harmless from all claims for injury to persons or damage to property resulting from the Contractor's operations.
G. Material Verification.
Material supplied from alternate borrow areas may be verified for compliance with these requirements. Material verified not in reasonably close compliance with these requirements shall be removed and replaced with acceptable material at the Contractor's expense, when ordered by the Engineer.
PLACEMENT OF SURPLUS MATERIAL.
Surplus excavated material shall be placed as directed by the Engineer. It shall generally be used in widening adjacent embankments, to flatten sideslopes, or to construct berms in accordance with Article 2107.12.
PROVISIONS FOR DRAINAGE.
Intercepting ditches and flumes shall be constructed as shown in the contract documents.
In cuts along side hills where there is a possibility of surface water causing damage to the backslope of the cut, intercepting ditches with appropriate flume outlets shall be constructed to intercept surface water. Where surface water or water from side ditches would otherwise follow the toe of the embankment slope, the water shall be directed away from the toe of slope by runout ditches.
When locating tile lines is required by the Engineer, trenching and backfilling shall be done at locations shown in the contract documents or as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall construct a continuous trench having a minimum depth of 5 feet (1.5 m) and a minimum width of 4 inches (100 mm). Trenching shall be outside the limits of the embankment. The Engineer shall examine the trench and excavated material to locate tile lines. Backfilling shall not be started without approval of the Engineer. All trenches shall be backfilled.
If necessary in prosecution of the work to interrupt or alter the natural flow of surface waters or flow of artificial drains, the Contractor shall provide temporary drainage facilities as are necessary to prevent damage to public or private property. The Contractor shall restore the original drainage facilities as soon as the work will permit. The Contractor shall be fully liable for all damages arising from action or inaction in providing for temporary drainage.
PROTECTION OF TREES AND SHRUBS.
Trees and shrubs to be preserved shall be protected from injury during grading operations. The Engineer may require barricades or fences for this purpose.
Whenever the Contractor's operations encounter remains of prehistoric people's dwelling sites, burial sites, or artifacts of historical or archaeological significance, the operations shall be temporarily discontinued at the site. The Engineer, in conjunction with proper archaeological authorities of the State of Iowa, will promptly examine the exposure and determine the disposition.
When directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall excavate the site in a manner to preserve the artifacts encountered and remove them for delivery to the custody of proper State authorities.
Excavation and embankment work, including borrow pits, shall be finished in a high quality manner to the specified or designed grade and cross section. On projects which do not involve a surface course other than a traffic compacted surface, the Engineer may waive the setting of finishing stakes if compliance with grade and cross section requirements has been obtained and appearance and riding qualities are satisfactory. Backslopes shall be kept neatly finished as construction progresses.
All finishing work shall be kept as close as possible to construction operations. This applies particularly to steep slopes and large areas which could result in pollution of streams by soil erosion. When erosion control items are a part of the contract, the contract documents may specify a completion date for specific areas. When these dates are not specified, the Contractor shall complete erosion control work on all finished areas within 5 working days after completion of finishing. The Contractor shall keep finishing operations current with other construction operations.
If the Contractor fails to maintain partly finished work in a satisfactory manner, when ordered in writing by the Engineer, all other work shall be discontinued until all finishing and maintenance work is in a satisfactory condition. Before final acceptance, the roadway shall be finished to the specified or designed line, grade, and cross section.
The degree of finish for grading slopes, shoulders, and ditches will be that ordinarily obtainable through use of power equipment operating under favorable conditions and operated by skilled workers. Hand methods of finishing will be required only when satisfactory results are not otherwise obtained.
All backslopes and foreslopes shall be finished to the extent that they conform to the cross section, and all bulges shall be removed and all sags filled. Unless specifically excluded, all backslopes and foreslopes on all projects shall be roughened as a final finishing operation except those which contain sufficient sand or rock to make roughening impractical. Roughening shall be to a minimum depth of 3 inches (75 mm) and shall be done by scarification, use of a heavy disk, or other suitable means.
Equipment used in roughening the surface shall operate in a direction substantially parallel with the toe of the slope. If the material being roughened is of such nature that an objectionable amount rolls down the slope, the Contractor shall start roughening operation at the toe of the slope and proceed in parallel strips up the slope.
Temporary water pollution control, shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2525.
GRADING FOR PAVING.
On contracts for grading work to be done immediately prior to paving work covered by a separate contract, the grading Contractor shall build the rough grade to the full width of roadbed and with sufficient crown to provide surface drainage. The roadbed shall be constructed so that the surface elevation shall not be lower at any point than the elevation of the corresponding pavement subgrade and shall not be above this elevation by more than 3 inches (75 mm), except at structures or when required by the contract documents.
The operation of earth moving equipment with legal axle loads will be permitted on new pavements or resurfaced roads if the road is not open to general traffic. Operation of earth moving equipment will not be permitted on pavements or resurfaced roads open to general traffic.
The above restrictions will not be construed to prevent the Contractor from hauling across pavement with legal loads at locations designated by the Engineer, or to prohibit the Contractor from turning across pavement to the opposite shoulder when embankment height or ditch depth prevents turning in the opposite direction. All flaggers necessary for safe operations shall be furnished by the Contractor at no additional cost.
METHOD OF MEASUREMENT.
The work of roadway and borrow excavation will be measured as follows:
The Engineer will determine in cubic yards (cubic meters) the quantity of Class 10, Class 12, or Class 13 material excavated from the roadway, from borrow pits, from areas where unsuitable or unstable soil is shown in the contract documents or designated by the Engineer, and from drainage channels, other than intercepting ditches and flumes. Except as provided in this article, measurements will be made by cross sectioning of the area excavated before and after excavation. Quantities will be computed from the cross section measurements by the average end area method which may be generated from aerial photography. The volume of topsoil stripped and salvaged as provided in Section 2105 will be excluded from quantities measured as provided above.
The quantity of Class 10 excavation for which payment will be made will be the quantity shown in the contract documents, adjusted by an increase or decrease in borrow excavation or change in backslope. Should the Contractor or the Engineer desire actual measurement, written notice shall be given to the other party at any time during the construction period. If actual measurement is requested, the preliminary cross sections and the balance points shown in the contract documents will be used. This method shall be used in conjunction with the quantities shown in the contract documents related to work as provided for in Article 2107.16 and Article 2108.02.
When embankment-in-place is specified, the Engineer will determine the quantity of materials placed using cross section and end area methods. The quantity for which payment is made will not exceed that necessary to construct the embankment to the neat cross section shown in the contract documents, adjusted for settlement. The Engineer may elect to measure the embankment after selected backfill material and topsoil have been spread and deduct the computed quantities of selected backfill and topsoils from the quantities of total embankment.
Overhaul will not be measured or paid for when excavation is paid for as embankment-in-place. Prior to computation of embankment quantities, the original ground profile and original ground elevations shown on the cross sections will be adjusted to conform as nearly as practical to information obtained from taking elevations on settlement plates.
Boulders or rock fragments classified as Class 12 excavation will be measured as follows:
1. Boulders buried near the site where they occur will be measured individually.
2. Boulders or rock fragments deposited in piles will be measured by the volume of the pile.
3. Boulders or rock fragments handled separately from fine material and placed in embankments or in gullies will be measured in the transporting vehicle.
4. When boulders or rock fragments are mixed with earth, sand, gravel, or other fine material and cannot be handled in a way normal to Class 10 excavation, the total volume of the mixture of rock and fine material will be determined by cross sectional measurements, if practical. If not, it will be estimated by the Engineer. The quantity thus determined will be considered as Class 12 excavation.
5. Boulders or rock fragments handled and deposited in final position in a manner normal to Class 10 excavation will not be measured as Class 12 excavation.
6. All boulders, rocks, or Portland cement concrete collected as part of the finishing operations will be measured in the transporting vehicle or in piles.
B. Intercepting Ditches and Flumes.
Intercepting Ditches and Flumes will be measured in feet (meters) along their center lines.
C. Selected Backfill Material.
The quantity of Selected Backfill Material for which payment will be made, will be the quantity shown in the contract documents.
D. Special Backfill Material.
Special Backfill Material will be measured in tons (megagrams) or cubic yards (cubic meters) of material placed. If measurement by weight (mass) is impractical, the material may be measured by volume in the transporting vehicle, and this volume will be converted to tons (megagrams) using a conversion factor determined by the Engineer.
Water required by the Engineer for embankment construction will be measured in thousands of gallons (kiloliters) by gauging the contents of the transporting vehicle or by metering the supply. Water used in connection with specified compaction with moisture and density control or with moisture control will not be measured for payment.
F. Locating Tile Lines.
Locating Tile Lines will be the measured distance in stations (meters) of trenching and backfilling.
G. Crushing of Class 12 Excavation.
The quality in cubic yards (cubic meters) shown in the contract documents for Crushing of Class 12 Excavation will be the volume paid. Prior to the start of this work, if either the Engineer or the Contractor desires actual measurement the Engineer will determine in cubic yards (cubic meters) the quantity of Class 12 Excavation that will be crushed computed from the cross section measurements by the average end area method based on soil borings.
Removal of pipe culverts that are not encased in concrete will not be measured or paid for, but will be considered as incidental to excavation.
BASIS OF PAYMENT.
The work of roadway and borrow excavation will be paid for as follows:
Roadway and Borrow Excavation.
Roadway and borrow excavation measured as provided above will be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic yard (cubic meter) for Class 10, Class 12, and Class 13 excavation or embankment-in-place. These payments shall be full compensation for material excavated in the manner prescribed in these specifications, the preparation of the site for embankment and the formation and compaction of embankment; the finishing of the earth roadway, side ditches, and slopes; the repairing and replacing of all fences that have been unnecessarily damaged or removed by the Contractor; and all such incidental work as may be required to make the grading work complete. Payment will not be made for excavation work done prior to the staking and cross sectioning of the work by the Engineer.
When the contract contains a separate unit price for below grade excavation, all excavation made below grade in accordance with the contract documents or on order of the Engineer will be paid for at the contract unit price for the class of excavation involved.
When the contract does not contain a unit price for below grade excavation, as defined in Article 2102.04, A, and the contract documents do not indicate that below grade excavation will be required, this excavation ordered by the Engineer will be paid for at double the contract unit price in the case of Class 10 or Class 13 excavation to a maximum depth of 3 feet (1 m) and at the contract unit price in the case of Class 12 excavation. If the depth of Class 10 or 13 excavation exceeds 3 feet (1 m), payment will be made as extra work as provided in Article 1109.03, B. Excavation involved in rebuilding embankments will be paid for at the contract unit price for the class of excavation involved.
Excavation for runout ditches to divert the flow of water from side ditches away from the toe of embankments will be paid for at the contract unit price for Class 10, Class 12, or Class 13 excavation, as the case may be.
When the contract contains a unit price for Class 10 excavation only and the contract documents do not indicate that Class 12 excavation is to be expected, any necessary Class 12 excavation, either above or below grade, will be paid for at 10 times the contract unit price for Class 10 excavation.
B. Intercepting Ditches and Flumes.
Intercepting Ditches and Flumes for removal of surface water from side hill cuts into side ditches will be paid for at the contract unit price per linear foot (meter) for these ditches and flumes.
C. Selected Backfill Material.
Selected Backfill Material will be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic yard (cubic meter). Except for water added, this payment shall be full compensation for all work involved in excavating, hauling, and incorporating this material into the roadway.
Special Backfill Material.
Special Backfill Material will be paid for at the contract unit price per ton (megagram) or cubic yard (cubic meter) including water naturally present in the material. Except for water added, this payment will be full compensation for all work involved in furnishing, excavating, and processing, when the source is designated in the contract documents, and hauling and incorporating this material into the roadway. Special Backfill Material furnished by the Contractor, if processed in an approved pugmill to a moisture content satisfactory to the Engineer, will be paid for at the contract unit price per ton (megagram) based on scale weights, including water. If payment is made in the above manner, no separate payment will be allowed for water or its incorporation into the mixture.
The contract will have a separate item for Special Backfill, Place Only, in tons (Mg) or cubic yards (m3), when the Contracting Authority is providing the material or if the material is available from mandatory crushing of pavement or pavement scarification on the contract. The cost of crushing or pavement scarification should be included in the Contractor's price for special backfill if recycling is not required but the Contractor chooses to crush the pavement removed or scarify the HMA surfacing for special backfill.
Water added will be paid for at the contract unit price per 1000 gallons (kiloliter). This payment price shall be full compensation for furnishing, transporting, and manipulation to incorporate the water ordered by the Engineer to be applied. In case the contract does not contain an unit price for water and moistening of the material is authorized or ordered, water will be paid for as extra work at the rate of $12.00 per 1000 gallons ($3.20 per kiloliter).
Payment will not be made for water used in connection with specified compaction with moisture and density control or with moisture control.
F. Locating Tile Lines.
For the number of stations (meters) trenched and backfilled in Locating Tile Lines, the Contractor will be paid the contract unit price per station (meter).
G. Crushing of Class 12 Excavation.
The Contractor will be paid the contract unit price per cubic yard (cubic meter) for the volume of Class 12 Excavation crushed.
When Type B compaction is specified, work performed at the direction of the Engineer to dry the material in excess of that obtained by the maximum number of diskings specified in Article 2107.06 shall be performed as extra work as provided in Article 1109.03, B.
Extra compensation will not be allowed for working around utilities.
For work performed in connection with preservation of archaeological salvage, the Contractor will be paid as provided in Article 1109.03, B.
If the contract does not include an item for Stripping, Salvaging, and Spreading Topsoil, Section 2105, such work ordered by the Engineer will be paid for at 1.5 times the contract unit price for Class 10 excavation.